With a collapsing export sector dragging its economy into the steepest recession since World War II, and the country's political system paralyzed by a power struggle between the ruling and opposition parties, Japan is in the midst of a potentially revolutionary transformation of the political and economic systems that have held sway throughout its postwar history. The coming transformation will have dramatic repercussions for Japanese society, but some are also beginning to ask what this means for the rest of the world.
The political and security role that Japan plays abroad is often not well understood in the West, but it plays a key part in keeping East Asia stable and is vital to U.S. interests in the region. If, as is possible, the worsening crisis leads the country's leaders to turn inward and abandon Japan's growing international role, many may finally come to understand just how important Japan was.
The current political and economic turmoil has taken Japan into uncharted territory. Analysts have been predicting the end of the country's half century of nearly uninterrupted one-party rule for years, but it now appears a real possibility for the first time. During the past decade, the internal faction system of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has weakened, and its electoral popularity in urban areas and even the countryside has waned under sustained attack from the opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ).
The DPJ took control of the upper house of the Diet in 2007, but unfortunately, the result has not been a robust two-party system. Political paralysis has been the order of the day, as DPJ leader Ichiro Ozawa has attempted to stymie LDP policies and position his party for the next general election. He hopes to take power of the lower house and thereby become the next prime minister.
Similarly, Japan's export-driven economic model has occasioned numerous debates over its long-term viability, but only now is it being fundamentally questioned. Exports plunged 49 percent in February; some sectors, such as automobiles, dropped as much as 70 percent.
Although there is always the potential for Japan to continue to muddle along and begin a slow, soft decline into middle-rank status, there is also the possibility for radical upheaval.
However murky its ultimate fate, there's no question that it matters how Japan reacts to change. Asia accounts for nearly a third of global output, even with the economic crisis. Access to the region's ports, shipping routes, and the like is vital to the world economy. The Asia-Pacific region is home to the world's most populous countries, China and India, and some its most vibrant democracies, as well as the most tyrannical regimes. It is also one of the most heavily armed regions of the world, one that is rife with territorial, nationalistic, ethnic, and other disputes -- and it has the potential to become highly unstable yet again.
Despite all these tensions, the Asia-Pacific region has remained largely peaceful for most of the six decades following World War II, and particularly since the wars in Korea and Vietnam. This is no accident of history. The permanent U.S. military presence in the region has helped maintain freedom of the seas and served to deter large-scale intraregional conflict from erupting. Central to that success has been the U.S. alliance with Japan and a slow, but steady Japanese deepening of its role in Asia and beyond. From overseas development aid to counterterrorism training, from humanitarian relief to maritime security exercises, Japan has played a usually quiet, sometimes controversial, yet important role in helping maintain regional stability.
For decades, the United States and Japan have worked together on surveillance and patrols of crucial northeast Asian waterways, and Japanese P-3 aircraft were indispensable in tracking Soviet submarines, a role that Tokyo assumes it will play vis--vis China in coming years. Japan's quick response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, sending Maritime Self-Defense Force ships that provided potable water and crucial supplies, showed the country's ability to contribute to humanitarian efforts in Asia.
There has been a debate in Japan the past several years over whether, and how, to expand the country's foreign role. The Japanese increasingly self-identify with democratic, liberal states, and there has been much talk of universal values, such as human rights and civil society, in Japan of late. Indeed, such formulations were at the core of former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's short-lived administration.
However, limited by a constitutional interpretation forbidding collective self-defense, pressured by a shrinking military and foreign-aid budget, and worried about regional blowback, Japanese leaders have downplayed the expansive Abe platform and have yet to articulate their vision for Japan's future global position. Political deadlock and economic stress might foreclose the option of becoming more active regionally and globally.