The Underlying Causes of the 9/11 Attacks
- Berman, Paul. Terror and Liberalism. New York: Norton, 2003. Argues that the jihadist threat is similar to the fascist or communist threat in terms of both its ideology and goals.
- Hudson, Rex. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why. (Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 1999).
- Krueger, Alan. What Makes a Terrorist. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.
- Pape, Robert. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. New York: Random House, 2005. Argues that campaigns of suicide terrorism are more motivated by nationalism than religion.
- Richardson, Louise. What Terrorists Want. New York: Random House, 2007. 38-103.
- "How the Arabs Compare: Arab Human Development Report 2002." Middle East Quarterly. 9.4, Fall 2002. Academic Search Premier.
- Atran, Scott. "The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism." The Washington Quarterly 29.2, Spring 2006.
- Bergen, Peter and Swati Pandey. "The Madrassa Scapegoat." The Washington Quarterly 29.2, spring 2006. 117-125.
- Bergen, Peter. "What were the causes of 9/11?" Prospect Magazine (U.K) Issue 126, September 2006.
- Bergen, Peter and Michael Lind. "A Matter of Pride." Democracy. Winter 2007.
- Czwarno, Monica. "Misjudging Islamic terrorism: the academic community's failure to predict 9/11." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 29:7, 2006.
- Doran, Michael Scott. "Somebody Else's Civil War." In How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War. Eds. James F. Hoge Jr. and Gideon Rose. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.
- Gabriel, Richard A. "The Warrior Prophet." Quarterly Journal of Military History. Summer 2007.
- Moghadam, Assaf. "Suicide Terrorism, Occupation, and the Globalization of Martyrdom: A Critique of ‘Dying to Win.'" Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29.8: December 2006. 707-729. (A critique of Pape, see his book above
- Nacos, Brigitte. "The Terrorist Calculus Behind 9-11: A Model for Future Terrorism?" Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 26.1: January-February 2003. 1-16.
- Ruthven, Malise. "How to Understand Islam." New York Review of Books. November 8, 2007.
- Wiktoroqicz, Quintan and Kaltner, John. "Killing in the name of Islam: Al-Qaeda's justification for September 11." Middle East Policy, 10:2, summer 2003.