Al Qaeda: From Its Formation in 1988 to 9/11
- Fandy, Mamoun. Saudi Arabia and the Politics of Dissent. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999).
- Fouda, Yosri and Nick Fielding. Masterminds of Terror. (Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 2003).
- Kippenberg, Hans and Tilman Seidensticker, eds. The 9/11 Handbook. (London: Equinox Publishing, 2006).
- McDermott, Terry. Perfect Soldiers: The Hijackers-Who They Were, Why They Did It. (New York: HarperCollins, 2005). An excellent narrative.
- Summers, Anthony and Robbyn Swan. The Eleventh Day: The Full Story of 9/11 and Osama bin Laden. (New York: Ballantine Books, 2011).
- al Zawahiri, Ayman. Knights under the Banner of the Prophet (2001). This document is Zawahiri's autobiography, and it also outlines his political philosophy. It runs about 75 pages and is essential reading to understand him.
Articles and documents
- Ali Mohamed's plea agreement, reprinted as "Excerpts from Guilty Plea in Terrorism Case." New York Times. October 21, 2000.
- Al Qaeda Training manual
- Brown, Vahid. "Cracks in the Foundation-Leadership Schisms in Al Qaeda from 1989-2006," Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. New York: Combating Terrorism at West Point, 2007. 1-26.
- Court transcript of USA v. Usama bin Laden (the embassy bombings trial) provides a wealth of material. Entire transcript of the trial available here.
- The most important testimony is from the following days: Testimony of L'Hossaine Kherchtou, February 21 and February 26; Testimony of Essam al-Ridi, February 14, 2001; Testimony of Jamal al-Fadl, February 6, 2001.; Testimony of FBI Agent John Anticev, February 27, 2001; Summation of Ken Karas, May 1, 2001.
- Cullison, Alan. "Inside Al Qaeda's Hard Drive." The Atlantic Online. September 2004.
- Cullison, Alan and Andrew Higgins. "Computer in Kabul Holds Chilling Memos." Wall Street Journal. December 31, 2001.
- Cullison, Alan and Higgins, Andrew. "Saga of Dr. Zawahiri Sheds Light on al Qaeda Terror." Wall Street Journal. July 2, 2002.
- Lewis, Bernard. "License to Kill: Usama bin Ladin's Declaration of Jihad." Foreign Affairs, November/December 1998.
- Mneimneh, Hassan and Makiya, Kanan. "Manual for a Raid." The New York Review of Books. January 17, 2002 (Essential).
- Rohde, David and Chivers, C. J. "The Jihad Files." New York Times. March 17, 2002 and March 18, 2002.
- Wright, Lawrence. "The Man Behind Laden: How an Egyptian doctor became a master of terror." The New Yorker. September 16, 2002. (Note, this is more than 20,000 words in length and is subsumed in Wright's 2006 book The Looming Tower.)