The List

The World's Worst Textbooks

As students around the world head back to school, many of the lessons they're learning are not only false -- they're dangerous.


Lesson plan: Religious warfare, gender roles

Subject matter: Iranian leaders may have embraced new media to share political messages with the world, but at home, indoctrination still starts in print. According to one study, Iranian textbooks teach seventh graders that "every Muslim youth must strike fear in the hearts of the enemies of God and their people through combat-readiness and skillful target shooting." Iranian males are obliged by law to perform 18 months of military service at age 19. The Islamic Republic, a 2008 Freedom House study reports, encourages students to embrace Islamic supremacy and an unequal political system in which "some individuals are born first-class citizens, due to their identity, gender, and way of thinking." Women, for example, are portrayed as "second class citizens," depicted mainly in family situations and at home.

Primary source: "Defensive jihad is incumbent upon every one, the young and the old, men and women, everyone, absolutely everyone, must take part in this sacred battle, fight to the best of his or her abilities or assist our fighters." -- from a seventh grade Islamic culture and religious studies textbook



Lesson plan: Alternate history

Subject matter: Chinese history textbooks, much like the country's hesitant acceptance of itself as a world power, are full of contradictions. China, in the eyes of millions of its students, is both meekly innocent and unmatched in military power, simultaneously modest and boastful. Chinese textbooks ignore the invasion of Tibet in 1950 and the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War, launched by China in response to Vietnam's occupation of Cambodia, and teach that China has only fought wars in self-defense. They also gloss over Chairman Mao Zedong's 1958 to 1961 Great Leap Forward, which resulted in mass famine and 30 million deaths.

One example of Chinese textbook chutzpah can be found in the chapters on World War II, known in some textbooks as "the Anti-Japanese War." The Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing -- often known as the "Rape of Nanjing," when up to 300,000 people were killed by Japanese troops -- is described in one Chinese textbook as "the most horrible [event] in world [history]." (To be fair, Japanese textbooks are little better; they tend to skim over the event, calling it an "incident," "massacre," or "massacre incident.") The Chinese version of history has it that Japan was defeated in the war because of Chinese resistance, not because of the U.S. entry into the war.

Primary source: "The fundamental reason for the victory [in World War II] is that the Chinese Communist Party became the core power that united the nation" -- from a widely used Chinese history textbook

STR/AFP/Getty Images


Lesson plan: Enemies of the faith

Subject matter: After the 9/11 attacks -- in which 15 of the 19 hijackers were Saudi -- King Abdullah made reform of Saudi textbooks, which had been replete with references to Christians, communists, Zionists, and Western "nonbelievers" as enemies of Muslims, a priority. Nine years later, progress has been slow. In 2006, Riyadh promised to remove "all intolerant passages," but some sources say children are still learning from texts that promote anti-Semitism and jihad. Once again, Saudi Arabia has claimed that textbooks and programs used both in the kingdom and by schools funded by Saudi Arabia elsewhere "will be completely overhauled over the next three years." Saudi schools in countries including the United States, Britain, France, Germany, and Turkey all use similar textbooks.

Primary source: "Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words (Islam, hellfire): Every religion other than ______________ is false. Whoever dies outside of Islam enters ____________." -- from a first-grade textbook 

"As cited in Ibn Abbas: The apes are Jews, the people of the Sabbath; while the swine are the Christians, the infidels of the communion of Jesus" -- from an eighth-grade textbook on monotheism and jurisprudence



Lesson plan: Culture Wars 101

Subject matter: The Texas Board of Education ignited an international firestorm last spring when members approved a controversial new social studies curriculum. The new standards skew hard to the right -- championing American capitalism throughout and suggesting religious intentions on the part of the founding fathers.

Some of the most notable arguments were over language surrounding U.S. imperialism (now known as "expansionism") and birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger as a promoter of "eugenics," and an amendment to teachers that students be instructed to "describe the causes and key organizations and individuals of the conservative resurgence of the 1980s and 1990s, including Phyllis Schlafly, the Contract with America, the Heritage Foundation, the Moral Majority and the National Rifle Association." The board even recommended that Thomas Jefferson, creator of the expression "separation of church and state" be excluded from a list of world thinkers who inspired Enlightenment-era revolutions. And, in a salute to Democrats, "Bill Clinton's impeachment" will join Watergate in lessons on "political scandals."

The curriculum standards are reviewed every decade and serve as a template for textbook publishers. Texas's 4.8 million public school students make the state one of the largest markets for textbooks and a determinant of what the rest of the country's schoolchildren will study, with national publishers often tailoring their texts to Texas standards.

Primary source: The new curriculum hasn't hit textbooks yet, but pop quizzes are expected to have a slightly different look -- Newsweek recently published new study exercises that the Texas school board is likely to adopt:

"Explain how Arab rejection of the State of Israel has led to ongoing conflict." And "Evaluate efforts by global organizations to undermine U.S. sovereignty.

Getty Images


Lesson plan: Buddy Stalin

Subject matter: It can't be easy to put a positive spin on Stalin, under whose leadership more than 20 million Russians lost their lives. But that's what's being attempted in Russia today. Encouraged by wilderness enthusiast and former KGB agent Vladimir Putin, the country's curriculum is engaging in a re-Stalinizing process called "positive history." Aleksandr Filippov, the author of a new Kremlin-approved textbook told the Times, "It is wrong to write a textbook that will fill the children who learn from it with horror and disgust about their past and their people."

His book devotes 83 pages to Joseph Stalin's industrialization plans, but only one paragraph to the Great Famine of 1932 to 1933 in which millions starved as a result of deeply flawed agricultural policy. The book also minimizes the role played by the Soviet Union's allies during Word War II, saying that they "limited themselves mainly to supplying arms, materials and provisions to the USSR."

Primary source: "[Stalin] acted entirely rationally -- as the guardian of a system, as a consistent support of reshaping the country into an industrialized state" -- from A History of Russia, 1900-1945


The List

Hell and High Water

From Pakistan's floods to Russia's wildfires to the United States' oil spill, 2010 has been an unusually bad summer for disasters, natural and otherwise -- enough so that plenty of enormous catastrophes, or just plain weird ones, have had to fight for headlines. Here's FP's list of the disasters you missed.


Where: Sumatra, Indonesia

What: Indonesia ranks second only to Bangladesh in countries at "extreme risk" for natural disaster. This week, a long-dormant volcano in northern Sumatra proved it by erupting twice, killing two people and displacing 30,000 more, while spewing volcanic ash more than three miles into the air for six hours.

So far, the ash has only deferred some small domestic flights; larger planes are able to fly over the cloud. Officials are concerned, however, that if the eruption continues, the smoke could further disrupt aviation. Sumatrans have been evacuated from a four-mile radius around the volcano, and aid workers have distributed 8,500 face masks to protect people from the fumes.



Where: Niger

What: Heavy rains have caused severe flooding throughout Africa this summer, and both Chad and Ethiopia are in dire straits. But the hardest hit have been West African countries along the River Niger, which is at its highest level in over 80 years, according to the BBC. Worst off is Niger, where more than 110,000 people are homeless.

Niger was already in bad shape before the floods started in early August. A prolonged drought has left about seven million people -- half the country's population -- facing starvation. The floods have, predictably, not made things much better, and at least six people have died in the heavy rains. The U.N. has been distributing food, medicine, tents, and mosquito nets, but says that most needs "have still not been met." Right now, the U.N. is only able to feed 40 percent of those in need.



Where: China

What: Pakistan's devastating deluges may get all the coverage, but China's worst flooding in a decade has led to severe mudslides and billions of dollars in damage. In Gansu province, the death toll was more than 1,200 after landslides buried buildings and streets in mud. According to the Associated Press, thousands are still missing in this remote area of northwestern China. Tens of thousands more have been evacuated. The BBC reports that 66 percent of Zhouqu county lost power and many survivors are now living in tents, pitched precariously on unstable slopes.

Across the country, 28 provinces and 140 million people have been affected by flooding. The newest area of concern is on the North Korean border, which consists of the Yalu and Tumen rivers in Jilin province, where 74 people have been killed. The impact of floods remains mostly unknown in North Korea, which in addition to its well-known problems is also particularly vulnerable to flooding because of deforestation. South Korea has even offered Pyongyang millions in flood aid -- the first such assistance since it accused Kim Jong Il's regime of sinking the Cheonan warship in March.

Earlier this month, China declared a national day of mourning for flood and landslide victims, a rare occurrence in the country and the second this year, following the commemoration of the victims of April's Yushu earthquake.

LIU JIN/AFP/Getty Images


Where: Syria

What: Rain this year finally brought an end to what was Syria's third year of drought, which has caused about 800,000 people to lose "almost all of their livelihoods and face extreme hardship," according to a U.N. report. But U.N. officials say the rain hasn't been enough to save this year's harvests. Abdulla Tahir Bin Yehia, head of the Food and Agriculture Organization in Syria, says the country is facing "crop failure."

By some estimates, as many as 800,000 to one million Syrians have been displaced in what the BBC is calling a "rural exodus," with farmers abandoning their lands for makeshift camps on the outskirts of cities. In June, the World Food Program distributed rations to nearly 200,000 people, but WFP officials said that a lack of international funds meant it was unable to distribute food aid to all who needed it.

AFP/Getty Images


Where: China

What: This summer, the United States battled the aftermath of the largest offshore oil spill in the nation's history, and so did China. The two pipelines that exploded on July 16 in the Yellow Sea, near Dalian in Liaoning province, only hemorrhaged a small fraction of the oil that BP's Deepwater Horizon did. But by the time China declared the spill contained later that month, that still may have amounted to as much as 90,000 tons of oil, according to one expert (the Chinese government's estimate was at a much lower 1,500 tons).

Accurate information about the spill is hard to come by, but what we know of the picture is pretty grim. The spill spread over 165 square miles and posed a serious threat to both sea life and water quality. One firefighter drowned in the crude while trying to fix an underwater pump. Greenpeace China released a particularly ugly set of photos documenting the cleanup effort, showing workers swimming in the thick oil without protective gear.


Where: Northern India

What: This year, northern India experienced what may have been its hottest spring and summer since records began in the late 1800s. Before summer even officially began, temperatures were spiking as high as 120 degrees Fahrenheit; by the beginning of June, the heat wave had claimed the lives of more than 100 people in the state of Gujarat, 90 in Maharashtra, 35 in Rajasthan, and 34 in Bihar. Experts say 2010 may have been the region's hottest summer since records began in the late 1800s.

While city hospitals were flooded with people suffering from food poisoning and heatstroke, most casualties were found in remote rural villages. Wildlife and livestock also suffered -- in Uttar Pradesh, for example, dozens of peacocks were reported dead due to dehydration at a forest reserve.



Where: Spain

What: It's not quite a natural disaster on the order of Niger's drought or China's mudslides, but the wave of jellyfish that attacked the Spanish coast in early August was ominous nonetheless -- and another harbinger of humanity's growing impact on the planet. Hundreds of people were stung along the Mediterranean Costa Blanca over three days in a two-pronged gelatinous attack: a vast force made of transparent and tiny jellyfish spread along three miles of coastline, stinging vacationers, while further north the dreaded Portuguese Man of War plagued beaches with its three-foot-long tentacles.

Scientists attribute the jellyfish glut to global warming and Mediterranean fishing that kills the creature's natural predators, upper-food-chain species like tuna and swordfish.



Where: Hawaii and Brazil

What: If the floods, fires, and odd wildlife plagues weren't Biblical enough for you, how about a genuine pillar of flame? A brushfire on Hawaii's Big Island took a decidedly epic turn (or two) this weekend when strong winds created a "fire tornado," which is pretty much exactly what it sounds like: a swirling vortex of flame, vividly captured on tape here.

The brush fire continues to rage, but has not caused any casualties despite burning about 1,400 acres so far. One of the last times a fire tornado made major headlines was in 1981, when one killed a 6-year-old boy in Riverside, California.

Last week, newscasters reported on another fire tornado in the Brazilian municipality of Aracatuba in Sao Paulo state, provoked by this summer's unusual aridity. The state's humidity levels are on par with the Sahara desert; it's been about three months since the last rain.

Mulling it Over/Flickr