The List

Victor's Justice

As Egypt prepares to prosecute Hosni Mubarak, here's a look at five other countries that have -- with mixed success -- put former leaders on trial for their crimes.


Country: Iraq

Charges: A long list of counts starting with the 1998 ethnic cleansing campaign against Kurds (including gassing the town of Halabja), the 1990 invasion of Kuwait, the crushing of the Kurdish and Shiite rebellions following the war, the killing of political activists, the 1993 massacre of members of the Kurdish Barzain clan, the 1974 killing of Shiite religious leaders, and the killing of 148 people in the Shiite town of Dujail following a 1992 assassination attempt.

Justice: U.S. troops pulled Saddam out of an 8-foot-deep "spider hole" on Dec. 12, 2003, and turned him over to Iraqi authorities a short time later. He made his first appearance in an Iraqi courtroom almost two years later and immediately challenged the legitimacy of his trial, saying, "I preserve my constitutional rights as the president of Iraq.... I do not respond to this so-called court, with all due respect."

Saddam was convicted and sentenced to death on Nov. 5, 2005, for the killings in Dujail. He was hanged on Dec. 29. As a formality, the court dropped the rest of the charges against him, including genocide, in January, prompting protests from Kurdish groups. (Saddam's henchman Ali Hassan "Chemical Ali" al-Majid would eventually be executed for his part in the massacre of Kurds.) The emotional victory for Iraqis glad to see Saddam finally face justice was undercut somewhat by unauthorized video footage showing guards taunting the former leader in his final moments.


Country: Peru

Charges: 12 charges including organizing death squads that killed at least 25 people in the early 1990s, ordering the kidnapping of a prominent journalist and a businessman, illegal wiretapping, paying off members of congress, and embezzling $15 million.

Justice: Facing a massive corruption scandal, Fujimori resigned the presidency in 2000 and fled to Japan. Tokyo granted citizenship to Fujimori, a Peruvian of Japanese descent, and repeatedly refused the new Peruvian government's requests for his extradition. Fujimori was arrested in Chile in 2005 and extradited back to Peru in 2007.

Fujimori's trial began in December 2007 with the former leader angrily denying the charges against him. "As a result of my government the human rights of 25 million Peruvians are respected.... If there were exceptions, I condemn them, but I didn't order them," he said.

Fujimori was sentenced to a six-year prison term in 2007 for abuse of power, then convicted of mass murder and kidnapping in 2009 and sentenced to 25 years in jail. He received a third sentence of seven and a half years in 2009 on corruption charges. The best hope for 73 year-old Fujimori, who remains popular among many Peruvians who credit him with rescuing the country's economy, is his daughter Keiko, currently a leading candidate for president. Keiko has promised she will not pardon her father if elected, but few believe she will keep to her word.


Country: Cambodia

Charges: Crimes against humanity including the torture and murder of at least 14,000 people.

Justice: Pol Pot, who led the Khmer Rouge's reign of terror over Cambodia from 1976 to 1979, during which nearly one-fifth of country's population was killed, died under house arrest in 1998 without ever paying for his crimes. But Cambodians finally got a measure of justice for the Khmer Rouge years in 2010 when Kang Kek Lew, better known by his nom de guerre "Duch" was sentenced for crimes against humanity.

Duch had been the leader of the Khmer Rouge's "Special Branch," charged with rooting out the enemies of the movement's brand of agrarian communism, and oversaw the torture and murder of thousands at the infamous S-21 prison. Only a few dozen people are thought to have survived incarceration there. 

Following the fall of the Khmer Rouge, Duch went into hiding, eventually converting to Christianity and working as a teacher in a village school. He was discovered by Western journalists in 1999 and arrested shortly afterward. He was held in a military prison for more than eight years before his first appearance at a U.N.-supported tribunal in 2007. His claims that his rights had been abused during his long imprisonment prompted laughter in the courtroom.

Duch was sentenced to 35 years in prison in 2010 but had his sentence knocked down to 19 years because of the long time he had already been illegally imprisoned. Duch never denied his crimes, only saying he felt "regretfulness and heartfelt sorrow."


Country: Argentina

Charges: The torture and murder of 31 dissident prisoners.

Justice: The process of bringing Videla, the general who led Argentina's military junta from 1976 to 1981 and is considered the architect of the "dirty war" against the government's leftist opponents, to justice was a long one. More than 30,000 people are believed to have been "disappeared" under Videla's regime, many of them thrown into the ocean from airplanes. Videla was first sentenced to life in prison for torture, murder, and other crimes in 1985, but he was pardoned five years later by President Carlos Menem. 

He was jailed again in 1998 after being convicted of the kidnapping of children, but transferred to house arrest a short time later due to health issues. In 2007, a court overturned his original pardon, leading to a trial for the murder of 31 activists who shot dead in the city of Cordoba shortly after the military took power. He was sentenced to life in prison (once again) in 2010. He has taken full responsibility for the military's actions under his rule but is unrepentant, saying that his harsh measures were necessary to prevent a Marxist revolution, and that Argentina is now run by "terrorists."


Country: Haiti

Charges: Corruption and embezzlement.

Justice: Baby Doc followed his father's example, presiding over economic plunder on a massive scale and the torture and disappearances of hundreds of opponents during his 25 years in power before being ousted in a revolution in 1986. But in January 2011, he made a surprise return from exile in Europe. His homecoming provoked confusion in Haiti, which was still reeling from the effects of a devastating earthquake and in the midst of a contentious presidential election.

Duvalier was arrested and charged with bribery and embezzling state funds a few days after his return. (Many human rights activists were disappointed that he hadn't been charged with the torture and disappearances that were widespread under his rule.) Several months later, the courts don't seem to be making much progress in prosecuting Duvalier, who is living in a mansion near Port-au-Prince and is frequently spotted dining out at local restaurants and attending jazz concerts. And with the election of Michel "Sweet Micky" Martelly, who has stocked his cabinet with former Duvalier officials, it's appearing less likely that Baby Doc will ever see the inside of a jail cell.

Nikola Solic-Pool/Getty Images; RAUL GARCIA PEREIRA/AFP/Getty Images; JUAN MABROMATA/AFP/Getty Images; Extraordinary Chamber in the Courts of Cambodia via Getty Images; HECTOR RETAMAL/AFP/Getty Images

The List

Who’s in the Running to Run the IMF?

A look at the race to replace Dominique Strauss-Kahn.

With the International Monetary Fund looking for a new chief to replace the disgraced Dominique Strauss-Kahn, several names have emerged as front-runners. Here's a look at some of the top contenders with odds from British betting service William Hill.


Country: France

Job: Finance minister

The case: Lagarde is extremely well-regarded internationally -- the Financial Times ranked her as Europe's best finance minister -- and well-acquainted with the particulars of Europe's financial crisis. Her appointment, following Strauss-Kahn's arrest on sexual assault charges, would also be a symbolic blow to the boys' club that has traditionally dominated leadership positions in major international organizations. As Jenna MacGregor wrote in the Washington Post, regardless of whether Strauss-Kahn is convicted, his past comments and actions toward women can't have made his female associates feel comfortable. "While it may be little more than symbolism, that matters when it comes to selecting leaders," MacGregor writes.

Odds: 6/4


Country: Turkey

Job: Former administrator of the U.N. Development Program, now director of the Global Economy and Development program at the Brookings Institution.

The case: With experience managing a major international institution and a sterling reputation as an economist, Dervis has emerged as the odds-on favorite for the job. His birthplace is an advantage as well. With a Turkish managing director, the directorship could technically remain in European hands while simultaneously reaching out to the Middle East, a region where the Fund is not so popular at the moment. As Harvard economist Dani Rodrik writes:

Consider the (almost) impossible combination of demands that must be met during the job search. The Germans insist the new managing director should be from Europe. Europe's weak periphery wants someone who will be sympathetic to their cause and hit the ground running. Emerging market and developing economies ask for a leader that departs from the usual mold and will reflect their outlook and preferences for a change. And the world needs simply the best man or woman for the job.

Improbably, there is someone who meets all these criteria, and his name is Kemal Dervis.

Update: Dervis's candidacy may have taken a hit on May 19 when the New York Times reported that he had had an affair while working at the World Bank with a woman who now works at the IMF.

Update 2: Dervis issued a statement on May 20 saying he was not in the running for the job. 



Country: India

Job: Deputy chairperson of India's Planning Commission, former director of the IMF's Independent Evaluation Office

The case: The leading candidate from the BRIC countries, Ahluwalia would be one of the main contenders -- if the Fund decides to look beyond Europe for a new chief. Ahluwalia has been a driving force behind India's economic liberalization and was described as the "brain" of the Indian government by Time magazine. His home country is pushing hard for his candidacy, with the Indian government's chief economic advisor saying, "In my view, Montek is the best name … not only from India's point of view, but from the world's point of view also."

Odds: 5/1


Country: Germany

Job: Professor of economics at the University of Chicago, former president of the German Bundesbank

The case: Weber is reportedly the preferred candidate of Angela Merkel, who may not be comfortable having Lagarde at the helm of the Fund, given the chancellor's recent clashes with the French government on monetary policy. (Update: Merkel publicly praised Lagarde on May 20.) The BBC's Stephanie Flanders writes that Weber "has the advantage of being a traditionalist when it comes to little matters like inflation and budget deficits. If you think the IMF needs a firm hand on the purse strings after a period of throwing a lot of money at the financial crises, Weber is the man for you. "

Odds: 7/1


Country: Britain

Job: Former prime minister, former chancellor of the exchequer

The case: Brown reportedly badly wants the IMF's top job and has support from within the Fund's top management. His stimulus policies for the British economy were strongly backed by Strauss-Kahn back in 2009. On the other hand, Brown enjoys little support within his own country, with current Prime Minister David Cameron saying he is "not the most appropriate person" to head the IMF, making it unlikely that he will win the nomination.

Odds: 8/1


Country: Singapore

Job: Deputy prime minister of Singapore, chairman of the IMF's Monetary and Financial Committee

The case: Tharman was the first Asian to head the IMF's high-powered financial committee and has been at the forefront of efforts to make the Fund's top leadership more internationally diverse. He has spoken to the press on behalf of the Fund several times since Strauss-Kahn's arrest, so he's certainly a good representative. But despite the speculation about his candidacy for the managing director job, Tharman has dismissed the idea, saying he will focus his efforts back home in Singapore, where he was just named deputy prime minister.

Odds: 8/1


Country: Canada

Job: Governor of the Bank of Canada

The case: A Harvard- and Oxford-trained economist and Reader's Digest's most trusted Canadian, Carney's stewardship has received a great deal of acclaim for Canada's strong economic performance in the midst of the global financial crisis. With the job likely to stay in European hands, Carney's candidacy is a long-shot, but as the Globe and Mail's Michael Babad put it, "To date, the IMF, the European Union and the European Central Bank haven't been able to solve the continent's debt crisis, so maybe it's time for a Canadian to show them how to do it."

Odds: 10/1

TREVOR MANUEL           

Country: South Africa

Job: Formerly minister of finance, now head of the National Planning Commission

The case: Emerging economic power South Africa is pushing strongly for the next head of the IMF to be from a developing country. "Such a candidate will bring a new perspective that will ensure that the interests of all countries, both developed and developing, are fully reflected in the operations and policies of the IMF," said current Foreign Minister Pravin Gordhan. As it happens, Gordhan has just the man in mind for the job: his predecessor as finance minister, Trevor Manuel. The planning commission head is popular both domestically and internationally and has experience working with the IMF.

Odds:  10/1

GEORGES GOBET/AFP/Getty Images; TIM SLOAN/AFP/Getty Images; DOMINIQUE FAGET/AFP/Getty Images; KAI PFAFFENBACH/AFP/Getty Images; PAUL ELLIS/AFP/Getty Images; Stephen Jaffe/IMF via Getty Images; STAN HONDA/AFP/Getty Images; Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images