After the Khmer Rouge was driven from power in January 1979, its leaders and fighters retreated into the jungles and carried out a long guerrilla war against the Cambodian government. As a peace deal with the government was reached and the insurgency slowly collapsed in the late 1990s, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan (above) surrendered at the end of 1998 and were allowed to set up quiet residence in Pailin, a remote town on the Thai border in northwest Cambodia that was one of the Khmer Rouge's last strongholds.
On June 27, the trial of the Khmer Rouge's four most senior surviving leaders began in Phnom Penh. The defendants are Khieu Samphan, the nominal head of state; Nuon Chea, described as the Khmer Rouge's chief ideologue; Ieng Sary, the foreign minister; and his wife, Ieng Thirith, who was minister of social affairs. These four have been charged with genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. All have declared their innocence.
Left: Nuon Chea, known as "Brother Number Two," was second in command to Pol Pot ("Brother Number One"). At his trial, he testified that the Khmer Rouge were national liberators, guarding against Vietnamese incursions and motivated by heavy American bombing in a secret campaign during the Vietnam War.
Right: Khieu Samphan, former president of Cambodia from 1976 to 1979. He has written a book, Cambodia's Recent History and the Reasons Behind the Decisions I Made, in which he states that he was unaware of the killings being perpetrated.