The buildup to this weekend's sixth Summit of the Americas in Cartagena, Colombia, has been rife with drama. Ecuador's left-wing president, Rafael Correa, announced that he will skip the 34-country conference because it excludes Cuba, which does not belong to the Organization of American States (membership requirement: democracy). The presidents of El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua sparred publicly with the president of Guatemala over a drug legalization proposal. And not to be outdone, Cuba's Fidel Castro ridiculed U.S. President Barack Obama's reported plan to wear a guayabera -- a light tropical dress shirt originating in Cuba -- at the summit.
Yet for all the hoopla, the summit will likely produce little of substance. There are already reports that officials will sidestep hot-button issues such as drug policy and the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands. In fact, this is in keeping with the way these gatherings typically play out in Latin America, a land in which a dizzying array of acronymed intergovernmental organizations host an endless but ultimately empty parade of summits.
Sure, there have been some successes. The inaugural Summit of the Americas in 1994 marked a high point of goodwill between the United States and Latin American countries (Venezuela's Hugo Chávez and his like-minded allies had yet to assume power) and launched a proposal -- never realized -- for a free-trade bloc stretching from "Alaska to Argentina." The third Summit of the Americas in 2001 produced the Inter-American Democratic Charter, which emphasized the importance of democratic institutions in the Americas.
But the summits are more often remembered for temper tantrums and mischievous antics by government leaders -- with Chávez in particular at the center of many of the tempests. If past Latin American summits are any guide, we should expect some serious sparks to fly in Cartagena. Here are some of the least auspicious moments from summits past.
What: Ibero-American Summit
Where: Asunción, Paraguay
Meltdown: The annual gathering of leaders from the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Europe and the Americas was marred by the absence of several heads of state, including Brazil's Dilma Rousseff and Argentina's Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who claimed they had to prepare for an upcoming -- and implicitly more important -- G-20 summit in France.
The poor attendance -- and surely the optics of their king and prime minister mingling with lower level officials -- enraged Spanish news outlets, which deemed the summit a demoralizing failure. "The summit has become redundant for Latin American powers, who already have their own voice in other, more global forums," La Voz de Galicia lamented.
Not only that, but Correa, who booted a World Bank representative from the country in 2007 after the organization withheld an $100 million loan, stormed out of a speech by a World Bank official. "In an Ibero-American forum, why do I have to listen to lectures from the World Bank vice president, who openly blackmailed my country?" he asked, interrupting her presentation. Bolivia's Evo Morales stuck it to Spain shortly after the summit, suggesting that the forum was in its death throes and that Latin American countries shouldn't be "held accountable every year to the king" of Spain.
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