Greece's economic woes have also given rise to another worrying trend reflected its scores on the Index: xenophobia. Reports surfaced last year that immigrants were increasingly being targeted for attack. Frustrated by the combined austerity measures and lack of employment opportunities, a rising number of young Greeks turned their support to the far-right party, Chrysi Avgi. Throughout 2011 and 2012, the party has held large anti-immigrant rallies that often precipitated attacks on the country's growing population of Afghan, Iraqi, and Pakistani immigrants. In several instances, homes and shops owned by foreign nationals were burnt to the ground or looted, and the owners were physically attacked. Hate-speech and racist rhetoric, including labeling various immigrant groups as "dogs" and "vermin," were ugly punctuation marks at political rallies. There has been a spike in immigrant attacks in 2012, since Chrysi Avgi increased its share of the vote. Victims are now fearful of reporting attacks to the police, after it was revealed that as much as 50 percent of the force voted for Chrysi Avgi in the last elections.
The anger did not stop with immigrants. Germany, which took the lead in negotiating the Greek bailout and simultaneously strong-arming the government to make more severe cuts to salaries and social services, also came under attack. Harkening back to World War II, when Germany occupied Greece, images appeared in the press depicting German Chancellor Angela Merkel as Adolph Hitler and other German politicians as Nazis. These images, and the sentiments they stirred, were quickly seized upon by Greek political figures from both sides of the spectrum. As the economic crisis continued to boil, and Papandreou tried to balance the demands of Greece's paymasters with the very real needs of his country, he came under attack from all sides for bowing to the Europeans. Although there was a temporary lull in protests and attacks following his resignation, by the close of the year it had become apparent that the dual economic and political crises gripping the country were not amenable to quick fixes. Although Greece was able to halve its massive debt in 2012 by securing a debt swap, political instability continued with the three top-ranking parties unable to form a government in May. Renewed efforts to agree on coalition arrangement are now underway.
The tragedy of Greece, and the slow swan dive of other EU countries on the FSI, calls into question the overall viability of the great European experiment. Critics of the economic union have long warned that the euro was only as strong as its weakest link. If 2011 was any indication, trying to impose a monetary union on 17 countries with widely disparate political and social cultures can quickly come apart at the seams. If Greece does indeed drop out of the euro -- as has seemed increasingly more likely in 2012 -- others might too. Thus, an economic union meant to bring stability, peace, and affluence to all its members, while detoxifying the poisonous history of the continent, may go the way of many tragedies, with the hero falling on his own sword.
As the events of the past two years and Greece's worsened performance on the FSI show, the country could be described as sliding toward state failure -- though it is not quite there yet. While other states have certainly experienced their own effects from the financial crisis, Greece has been hit particularly hard; the country now has a dysfunctional government that is unable to provide adequate public services to its citizens, a flailing economy heavily reliant on foreign aid packages, and thousands of businesses that have closed, racking up unemployment figures. Still, while the Greek government doesn't carry out its functions particularly well, it provides basic services and the rule of law generally prevails.
However, Greece has lacked the capacity to bounce back like some other Western countries. Iceland, for example, which was one of the first victims of the financial crisis in 2008 when its banks defaulted on $85 billion, saw its FSI economic indicator score soar to 6.2 (out of 10) in 2011, higher than Greece's current 5.9. (A high score denotes worse performance.) But Iceland's leaders responded quickly and efficiently to the crisis. Although long-term economic recovery remains a concern, the OECD's latest estimate sees Iceland's economy expanding 2.4 percent in 2012. The country once again ranks in the FSI's "sustainable" range, the best-performing bracket.
Greece, meanwhile, has been let down by its weak institutions -- namely, a corrupt government and inefficient spending. The Greek government took far too long deciding how best to handle the crisis, reflected in the country's high score of 5.4 in the "state legitimacy" category of this year's FSI. Greek politicians have so far been unable to pull together, prolonging the time it took to receive the EU's bailout package.
The entry of extremist parties into Greece's parliament will surely make consensus more difficult. Nonetheless, the new government is a step in the right direction. But while European leaders may be taking a breath today following the weekend's positive results, it's still a bit too soon to relax. In order for Greece to step back from the precipice of implosion, its government will need to create a legitimate, functional state that can earn back the trust of the public.