Argument

What Magnitsky Means to Me

Not even a clean doctor is safe from Russia's dirty war.

This week, Congress voted to roll back a host of Cold War-era trade restrictions, granting Russia permanent, normal trade relations with the United States. Integral to that legislative package -- which still has to be signed into law by President Obama -- is the Magnitsky Act, a bill that would impose sanctions on a list of Russian officials who stand accused of human rights abuses.

The bill is named for Sergei Magnitsky, a Russian auditor who in 2008 exposed the massive defrauding of a British investment fund by officials in the Russian Interior Ministry, but was later arrested and tortured to death by the same officers that he had testified against. On Capitol Hill, Magnitsky's death has become a cause célèbre, and the new legislation the bitter pill Moscow must swallow in exchange for the normalization of trade relations.

But for one family -- my family -- its passage comes just a moment too late.

On Nov. 28, Russian news outlets reported that police in Makhachkala, the capital of the restive northern region of Dagestan, attempted to arrest a man named Shamil Gasanov at his home. They allegedly sought Gasanov on suspicion of involvement in the 2010 murder of Makhachkala police chief Akhmed Magomedov -- a crime that was reportedly carried out by Islamists -- though the real reason for his arrest remains very much a mystery. According to the initial press accounts, Gasanov, who is by all accounts secular, resisted arrest and fired a gun at the officers, who returned fire, killing him.

It would have been an unremarkable occurrence in this dangerous corner of the Russian Federation, but for one consideration: the utter implausibility that Shamil Gasanov, an accomplished and well- respected surgeon, was a militant thug. And soon the facts began to unravel.

Two days later, witnesses came forward and told a very different story to RIA Novosti, the Russian state news agency. Gasanov's colleagues at Makhachkala Hospital No. 2 said they were stunned when heavily armed men burst into the surgical wing and arrested the 39-year-old surgeon in his scrubs and slippers -- not at his home, as earlier reports had indicated.

The men also entered an operating room where, with a patient under anesthesia, Gasanov's brother-in-law, anesthesiologist Marat Gunashev, was taken into custody. They then whisked the two prisoners away, having refused to identify themselves to the distraught hospital staff or supply a reason for the doctors' arrests.

Independent Russian news agency PublicPost reported that later on the evening of Nov. 28, Gasanov's neighbors saw armed officers arrive at Gasanov's home with a blindfolded prisoner, and proceed to search the premises. Soon after, gunshots were heard.

The Russian news outlets that had reported the earlier version of the story -- that Gasanov had been killed after firing on officers who were entering his home -- updated their stories to reflect a new version of events: while a squad of heavily-armed, combat-trained men ransacked his house, they reported, the surgeon, who was bound and blindfolded, had somehow retrieved a pistol from a "secret hiding place" and attempted to shoot his way to freedom.

The following day, according to the RIA Novosti account, officials searched Gunashev's home. The anesthesiologist's attorney was not permitted to speak to his client or be present while the search was carried out. Later, he was informed that "substances which look like drugs" had been found in Gunashev's eight-year-old daughter's drawer, along with school books.

Gunashev has remained in custody since he was arrested almost two weeks ago. But the question of who is holding him is as convoluted as the facts surrounding his brother-in-law's death.

According to RIA Novosti, the Dagestani police have no record of Gasanov or Gunashev's arrest. Nor was either man on a previously-reported list of suspects for the 2010 murder of the police chief. 

An unnamed source within the police told RIA Novosti that the operation has been planned and carried out entirely by the special security forces of the regional Investigative Committee for the North Caucasian Federal District, which is the nation's major investigative agency, headed by president Vladimir Putin's old-time ally Alexander Bastrykin. Officials at the Investigative Committee refused to comment on the matter to RIA Novosti.

While we may never know whether a successful surgeon made the remarkable decision to take on an entire squad of special security forces with a hidden pistol his family says he never had, one thing has become gruesomely clear: Gasanov's body was eventually returned without its head. His corpse also showed signs of torture, with bruises on his torso and both of his knees destroyed by direct gunshots.

These revelations lend credence to an even more unnerving possibility suggested by Gunashev's lawyer: that Gasanov was dead before his body was brought to his home for a staged search, and there decapitated by a close-range gunshot to create a plausible cover for his death by torture.

As for Gunashev -- should he or his case ever reach trial -- it is doubtful that a court will seriously consider the testimony of his eight-year-old daughter, who maintains that she saw an officer place a small package into her drawer during the search of their home.

I have never met Marat Gunashev and will now never meet Shamil Gasanov, but both are relatives of mine through marriage. In the extended family tradition of the Caucasus, they might be might be considered my brothers-in-law once- and twice-removed, though I know very little about them other, save for the pride our relatives had for their medical gifts.

To Russia watchers, the story of Gunashev and Gasanov is disturbing, but also familiar. To my family, it has made plain the terrible reality of Russia's broadening state culture of abuse, corruption, and repression. It is a story that U.S. officials should bear in mind as they normalize trade relations with Russia. As with any deal, the final analysis must rest on whether the benefits come at too high a price.

AFP/Getty Images

National Security

Alien War Brings Mideast Peace

And other benefits of an extraterrestrial invasion.

How do you know that a video game is science fiction? When it portrays Saudi Arabian and Egyptian soldiers fighting side-by-side with Israeli troops.

Such camaraderie seems as fanciful as warp drive and time travel. But if you can accept that Israelis and Arabs would rather kill aliens than each other, then you will discover that XCOM: Enemy Unknown is one of the best strategy games ever made.

Alien invasion is an old mainstay of science fiction, and so is XCOM, which first debuted in 1994, and went on to become a cult classic. While the 2012 remake features better graphics and smoother gameplay, it still retains that same innovative mixture of nasty aliens, high technology, and impending doom.

The game's premise is that extraterrestrials have arrived with high-tech weapons in their tentacles and murder in their hearts (or equivalent organs). At first they come in raiding parties to abduct or terrorize humans, but it gradually becomes evident that they have a more terrifying goal in mind.

The nations of Earth respond by forming XCOM (with you the player as XCOM commander). The organization is governed by the shadowy and vaguely sinister XCOM Council, consisting of 16 nations, including the United States, Canada, Brazil, Germany, Nigeria, and China. Each nation contributes a certain level of funding each month that enables the military arm of the organization to battle the extraterrestrial invaders. If XCOM fails to stop alien raids against a Council member, that nation will withdraw itself and its funds from the alliance.

XCOM: Enemy Unknown is a textbook of classic SF and horror creatures. There are the frail Sectoids, who look like your classic 1950s Roswell aliens; the spider-like Chrysalids, whose bite turns humans into zombies; Cyberdiscs that resemble floating marshmallow pies (if snack cakes were armed with directed energy weapons); and Muton, warriors who suggest the aliens successfully bred psychotic gorillas with NFL linebackers. It turns out that an advanced alien race genetically engineered these creatures for various functions and even embedded mechanical devices in their bodies (perhaps they intercepted old broadcasts of The Six Million Dollar Man?). My own gruesome favorites are the Floaters, who have rocket motors in their torsos instead of legs. Who needs the V-22 Osprey? Now this is tactical mobility!

It is a rule that all alien defense organizations must have an underground base, and XCOM is no exception. The XCOM commander's first decision is to choose a location, with different continents offering various bonuses. North America has cheaper aircraft maintenance costs, Europe cheaper infrastructure, and in a macabre twist South America offers faster interrogation of captured aliens. By the time those old Argentinean and Chilean generals are done, even ET will confess to being a communist.

Once a site is chosen, the player can build various facilities there such as labs, workshops and containment facilities for captured aliens. The base is also a barracks, with soldiers recruited from a smorgasbord of countries, including South Africa, Japan, and Middle Eastern nations such as Egypt and Israel. The most important aspect of the strategic game is research. Humanity begins the game outgunned; strangely for an advanced military force, XCOM troopers go into battle armed with 1990s-style light infantry gear (rifles, machine guns, grenades, rocket launchers, and body armor). They must confront aliens armed with plasma beam weapons, biogenetically armored skin, and exotic capabilities such as psionic attacks. The moral of the story is that you don't bring an assault rifle to a death-ray fight, but XCOM must soldier on until better weapons are developed.

As always in science fiction, science does come to the rescue, in the form of a German-speaking female scientist with a talent for interrogating captured aliens (perhaps she was recruited in South America?). Assuming she doesn't end up on trial in The Hague, her lab will develop a series of high-tech weapons and devices, mostly based on captured alien technology, that can be fabricated by XCOM's workshops. However, only one research project can be pursued at a time, so the XCOM commander must prioritize between lines of research such as better weapons, armor, and interceptors. Yet the real obstacle in the interplanetary arms race is that most advanced gear requires unearthly raw materials that can only be obtained from wrecked alien spacecraft and fallen alien warriors. Thus XCOM must make the war pay for itself: the more aliens it destroys, the more resources it captures to fuel its own capabilities.

The tactical portion of the game ensues when troops are dispatched to the site of an alien raid, or during a special mission such as retrieving a top scientist caught in an alien attack, or when a team is dispatched to the crash site of a downed alien spacecraft. Tactical brilliance has not tended to be a hallmark of SF aliens, as in the 1970 British series "UFO," where Earth defense force SHADO (which bears a remarkable resemblance to XCOM, except mercifully for the purple hair) maintained three space interceptors on the Moon, yet spacefaring aliens were too stupid to overwhelm the defenses by attacking with four UFOs simultaneously. No such luck in XCOM, though. The aliens will raid three cities simultaneously, and the sole XCOM Skyranger transport with its six-trooper combat team can only respond to one attack at a time.

Once on the ground, the aliens are formidable fighters. I learned more about basic infantry tactics from XCOM: Enemy Unknown than any other game I've played. One reason is that it's turn-based, so instead of the mob tactics found in shooter games, you have time to analyze the situation. And you had better analyze carefully, because the computer-controlled aliens are aggressive and smart. They will utilize cover and employ flanking tactics to get better shots at your troops.

Each human soldier gets two actions per turn, including move, shoot, reload, overwatch (which means shooting as the enemy moves), and various special actions such as suppressive fire. The most fascinating part of the tactical game is the use of colored symbols to indicate where there is cover, and more importantly, from what directions. That wall or parked car may shield your troops from fire from directly in front, but not at a 45-degree angle. Against aliens who aggressively outflank (or the rocket-propelled Floaters who love to drop behind you), success means not just finding cover, but the right cover. It also means patiently using fire-and-movement tactics, because the aliens will chew up a banzai charge. Combat continues until all the aliens or all the humans are wiped out, except for certain alien terror raids where the XCOM team must race to save as many civilians as possible.

It is the fate of XCOM to always be racing against time. When successful alien raids induce eight of the 16 XCOM Council members to withdraw, the game is lost. But like ballistic missile defense, no matter how capable the defenders, some of the attackers will get through. Thus, time is the enemy, and so is money. Over time XCOM will need more expensive weapons and facilities, but inevitably Council members will leave and take their funding with them, which means a shrinking resource base for Earth's defenders. Responding to alien raiders will not be enough. To win, XCOM must strike at the...sorry, no plot spoilers here.

Yet despite the specter of alien conquest, the scary creatures and burning cities, XCOM is a fundamentally optimistic game of the future. It offers an almost Star Trek-ian world where humanity puts aside its differences and works together toward a common goal. Yes, national self-interest does rear its ugly head. Nations will defect from the alliance if their individual defense is not assured, captive to an "all politics is local" philosophy that Gene Roddenberry would not have approved of, but is nonetheless a tradition of human existence.

Still, humanity does band together, if only hesitantly. The lion sleeps with the lamb, the Arab fights alongside the Israeli, the Chinese beside the Japanese. It took an alien invasion for this to happen. But if Earth does prevail in the war to save mankind, then perhaps the price was worth it.

Take-Two Interactive Software/Firaxis Games/2K Games