The List

Self-Appreciation Day

How dictators and monarchs celebrate themselves.

Every year, the United States designates the third Monday in February as a national holiday to honor both George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. But aside from doing a litte sale shopping, most Americans don't celebrate the holiday in any significant way. In fact, many don't even know whom the holiday commemorates, and sitting U.S. presidents certainly don't honor themselves. (Obama did spoil himself a bit this year by playing a round of golf with Tiger Woods.) But that's not the case everywhere in the world. Here's a look at six countries where current leaders celebrate their birthdays publicly -- and very often in extravagant style.

KAZAKHSTAN

In 2008, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev signed a decree to make his birthday a national holiday. Though July 6 is officially called "Astana Day" to mark the day Astana became the nation's capital in 1997, many in the country see the holiday as an excuse to celebrate the birthday of the Kazakh president, who has led the central Asian state since the fall of the Soviet Union.

Some observe the holiday with enthusiasm, but others are less than comfortable with the cult of personality that appears to underlie the lavish celebrations -- especially in a country where a university as well as many parks and squares bear the name of the longtime president.

"This is a huge waste of money and pompous precisely because Astana Day and Nazarbayev's birthday are the same day," one Astana resident declared in 2010. "They are constantly driving into my children at school that Nazarbayev is our everything." 

In 2010, the three-day birthday festival kicked off with the opening of a giant indoor park (giant as in containing a multistation monorail and an amusement park featuring "human pinball" and a log flume ride, among other attractions). The Italian tenor Andrea Bocelli sang (in 2008, it was only Whitney Houston), and seven presidents plus the king of Jordan were in attendance. In total, the celebratory circuses, ballets, and fireworks cost Kazakhstan more than $10 million. (That same year, the country observed an elaborate First President's Day to mark the anniversary of Nazarbayev's first election in 1991. "Kazakhstan Celebrates First, And Only, President," NPR cheekily observed.) 

Last year, the Astana Day celebration included an international film festival, a Cirque du Soleil performance, several concerts, and an ice show. But if you think that this sounds just a little bit Nero-esque, think again, at least according to government leaders. "There is nothing surprising here," one official argued in 2010. "All nations pay tribute to their presidents." 

Nazarbayev, who has repeatedly won (widely criticized) elections with more than 90 percent of the vote and changed the law to personally exempt himself from term limits, could be celebrating his birthday in style for many years to come -- especially if his quest for the elixir of youth works out.

In the photo above, artists perform in honor of Kazakhstan's First President's Day in Astana on Dec. 1, 2012.

Stringer/AFP/Getty Images 

JORDAN

One of the distinguished guests at Nazarbayev's Astana Day celebrations clearly has different ideas about how his country should commemorate his birthday. Jordanians have been celebrating King Abdullah II's birthday since he succeeded his father King Hussein in 1999, but the day used to be a national holiday (along with Hussein's birthday). In 2007, however, King Abdullah announced that in order to boost productivity, banks and businesses would remain open on the two royal birthdays.

"As sincere work and dedication are key to economic prosperity, every single day of our work time brings in new opportunities for more achievements and investment and opens new areas for creativity and development," the king said. "We found that my birthday and the birthday of my father, the late King Hussein, should be another two days of official work ... and hope that Jordanians can celebrate the two occasions with more productivity."

Today, Jan. 30 is a cause for celebration in the country, but it is also a workday. And King Abdullah himself prefers to celebrate with family rather than with famous singers and foreign dignitaries. 

Above, Jordan's King Abdullah and Queen Rania give a present to a child being treated for cancer on Jan. 29, 2002 in Amman. The monarch marked his 40th birthday by visiting children undergoing cancer treatment. 

Salah Malkawi/Getty Images

NORTH KOREA 

Earlier this year, Kim Jong Un showed the world that giving can be more satisfying than receiving. According to state media, the North Korean supreme leader commemorated his Jan. 8 birthday -- which has yet to be designated a national holiday -- by distributing 1 kilogram of candy to every North Korean child under 10. Even villagers in outlying islands received the treats -- they "exploded with joy" when they saw the gifts, according to the official report.

If Kim Jong Un is looking to nurture his personality cult, he's on the right track. Both his father and grandfather reportedly demonstrated their "paternal love" for the youngest generation of North Koreans by giving away "birthday candy" and other household staples such as eggs (and cigarettes). Today, both former leaders have their own national holidays -- the "Day of the Shining Star" commemorates Kim Jong Il's birthday while the "Day of the Sun" honors Kim Il Sung's -- and Kim Jong Un just honored his father's birth anniversary on Feb. 16 by issuing commemorative stamps, visiting Kim Jong Il's grave, sending wild honey to a maternity hospital ... and testing a nuclear weapon. "Our soldiers and people celebrated the birth of our great leader after we showed our strength and braveness with the successful nuclear test," the country's state-run news agency declared.

Above, images are displayed on a screen as North Korean performers sing at a theater during celebrations to mark the 100th birth anniversary of Kim Il Sung in Pyongyang on April 16, 2012.

Ed Jones/AFP/Getty Images

CUBA 

Ever since taking power in 1959, Fidel Castro has marked his birthdays with mass celebrations in Cuba. In 2011, for instance, a week of festivities culminated in a "Serenade to Fidelity" gala that included performances by artists from Europe and Latin America, including the Grammy Award-winning Omara Portuondo of Buena Vista Social Club fame. That same year, Castro celebrated the occasion with his erstwhile ally Hugo Chávez, who happened to be in Cuba for cancer treatment.

"Here with Fidel, celebrating his 85th birthday," Chávez tweeted. "Viva Fidel!"

Castro did not make a public appearance on his birthday last year, but the country was content to celebrate without him. State media congratulated him, concerts were dedicated to him, and the Union of Communist Youth baked him a cake. Not even an art show depicting important moments in his life could bring him out into the public eye. But it was Castro's party and he could hide if he wanted to.

Above, Cuban children gather around a cake dedicated to Fidel Castro's 86th birthday on Aug. 13, 2012 in Havana.

Adalberto Roque/AFP/Getty Images

TURKMENISTAN 

In 2005, on his 65th birthday, Turkmenistan's former dictator Saparmurat Niyazov commemorated the occasion by issuing a set of coins featuring his family tree. A year later, Niyazov minted a set of gold and silver coins to honor his own poetry -- four collections and two volumes of a work he called the "Book of the Soul," which, according to the Guardian, offered "moral guidance, including respecting your elders, and giving lots of jewellery to women." (Children studied the book in school and convicts swore their allegiance to it upon release from jail -- that is, until Niyazov's successor released his own spiritual guidebook to replace it.)

Niyazov's birthday celebrations were lavish -- the mandatory festivities dominated the news and involved parades, "concerts, horse races, and children in national costume praising their leader's merits in both Turkmen and English." In 2005, Niyazov received a chestnut-colored stallion as a gift.

Upon assuming power after Niyazov's death in 2006, Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov requested that his birthday not be celebrated as a lavish national gala and abolished the holiday honoring his predecessor's birthday, but he still knows how to throw a birthday party. In 2011, for instance, he performed a love song that he had written himself. (After the performance, state television announced that the guitar, now a "national asset and great treasure," would be preserved in a museum.) In 2012, festivities in the capital included elaborate musical numbers in Berdymukhammedov's honor.

Above, people walk past a poster of Berdymukhammedov during an Independence Day parade in Ashgabat on Oct. 27, 2008. 

STR/AFP/Getty Images

THAILAND 

Every year, Thais celebrate King Bhumibol Adulyadej's birthday, also Thailand's Father's Day, by gathering in massive crowds in Bangkok, waving flags, and wearing the royal color of yellow (yellow symbolizes Monday, the day of the king's birth). The monarch typically pardons political prisoners and occasionally offers remarks. This past year, he called for national unity. 

The king's birthday isn't the only occasion in which Thais have shown support for their sovereign, believed by some to be semi-divine, through fashion choices. In 2007, the world's longest reigning living monarch emerged from a three-week stay at a hospital in Bangkok wearing a pink shirt and blazer. Within a day, sales of pink shirt had jumped 60 percent as Thais rushed to stores in the hopes of improving the aging king's health.

Paula Bronstein/Getty Images

National Security

Everybody Wants to Rule the World

28 games for your President's Day weekend.

If George Washington had played video games, would he still have led the United States to independence? Or would Americans today be singing "God Save the Queen"? In honor of Presidents' Day, FP looks at video and board games that teach us a little something about a few of our 44 commanders-in-chief.

George Washington

Birth of America II -- Before he could become president, Washington had to mold an army virtually from scratch and lead it into battle against arguably the best force in Europe. He might have appreciated a chance to practice his generalship in this sophisticated strategic-level computer game, in which fighting is almost anti-climatic compared to raising and supplying armies, and moving them around a vast theater of operations.

Assassin's Creed 3 -- Would Washington have enjoyed a video game in which time-traveling assassins meddle with the American Revolution? And would we have wanted him to play a game that comes with an expansion called "The Tyranny of King Washington"?

James Polk

The Halls of Montezuma: The Mexican-American War -- If the current security situation in Mexico continues to deteriorate, the U.S. government might want to check out this board game centered on the 1846 U.S. invasion.

Abraham Lincoln

War Between the States -- The challenge of this computer game is to get your armies moving, a frustration with which Lincoln was intimately acquainted. The Union and Confederate players must appoint commanders, each with a different level of initiative that in turn determines how fast his army travels. (And seniority rules mean that the worst commander is frequently the one in charge.) Needless to say, at the beginning of the war, the Union is stuck with McClellan and Burnside, while the South has Lee and Jackson.

William McKinley

Victoria 2 --The United States scrambles for its share of the imperialist pie in this economic-military computer game that depicts the days when occupying foreign lands was considered a good deed.

A Splendid Little War: The 1898 Santiago Campaign -- Was there really a time when U.S. troops could land in Cuba and be greeted by cheers instead of gunfire? This board game about the U.S. liberation of Cuba during the Spanish-American War almost seems like an alternate universe.

Woodrow Wilson

World War One -- A small board game of the Great War, in which the combatants expend manpower like ammunition in the ultimate war of attrition.

Herbert Hoover

Monopoly -- A game published during the Great Depression, in which Americans can go bankrupt from excessive speculation, seems appropriate for Hoover.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

World in Flames -- A living-room-sized board game that can take a full year to complete would have been good preparation for the global war that FDR fought. The American, British, and Soviet players must work together, but only one of them will win.

Harry Truman

The Korean War -- The U.S. player must repel the North Koreans, survive Chinese intervention, and save South Korea, all while trying not to drag in the Soviets, in this challenging board game.

Dwight Eisenhower

Twilight Struggle -- A clever board game of Cold War superpower rivalry, in which launching coups and military interventions determines whether the United States or the Soviets will emerge on top. Just be careful not to start a nuclear war.

John F. Kennedy

Cuban Missile Crisis -- JFK might not have opted for a blockade had he played this board game, in which the United States invades Cuba and possibly triggers World War III.

Lyndon Johnson

Battlefield: Vietnam -- Johnson always appeared somewhat clueless about what was going in Vietnam. Perhaps this video game would have given him some idea of what he was sending U.S. soldiers into.

Vietnam 1965-75 -- Just like the conflict, this board game is long and intricate. The U.S. player must carefully commit the right amount of force without triggering a domestic backlash in America, all while fighting an enemy that comes back stronger no matter how many times he is destroyed.

Richard Nixon

Downtown: The Air War Over Hanoi 1965-72 -- A tactical board game that does much to explain why bombing North Vietnam proved so costly.

Paranoia -- A satirical role-playing game where players must survive in a futuristic city controlled by a malfunctioning computer that spies on its citizens and kills anyone it perceives as an enemy.

Jimmy Carter

Fortress America -- It is America's turn to suffer foreign occupation in this board game. Europe, South America, and China invade a feeble United States (perhaps governed by a president who thinks it's punishment for our sins).

Prince of Persia -- This adventure/time travel video game offers a more pleasant and less risky way for Carter to discover Iran.

Conquest of the Empire -- There is little Carter-esque about this board game about the Roman civil wars, except for the inflation rules that double or triple the costs of raising armies as the game progresses.

Ronald Reagan

Fallout 3 -- The player must leave the shelter of an underground city and roam a radioactive wasteland in this post-apocalyptic video game that shows what might have happened if Reagan's anti-Communist crusade had gone wrong.

Central America -- No more fooling around with the Contras. The United States can invade Nicaragua in this 1987 board game of conventional and guerrilla warfare in Central America.

Objective Moscow -- Maybe the Kremlin wasn't being paranoid? In this huge board game, the Americans, Europeans, and Chinese invade the Soviet Union to roll back the Evil Empire.

Missile Command -- The old video game based on Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative, in which the defenders are eventually overwhelmed -- just as in real life.

George W. Bush

Labyrinth: The War on Terror -- The title of the game alone might have warned Bush of what he was getting into in this political-military board game in which the United States is always scrambling to put down terrorists and prop up friendly Arab regimes.

Battle for Baghdad -- Despite the title, this is a game of political negotiation in which various factions -- including the Americans, Sunnis, and Shia -- befriend and backstab each other to control the Iraqi capital.

Khyber Rifles: Britannia in Afghanistan -- This board game recreating the destruction of the 1842 British Afghan expedition and the British reprisal offensive is a reminder that Afghan wars have never been easy.

Barack Obama

SOCOM 4: U.S. Navy SEALs -- A video game that would give Obama a chance to take a gun's-eye view of the special operators who killed Osama Bin Laden.

NBA 2K13 -- Obama might like this basketball video game. Basketball is strategy, just like foreign policy. Also like foreign policy, the coach takes the blame when the team fumbles.

Chess -- An intellectual, somewhat passionless game. Mr. Spock liked chess.

Think of any more games that symbolize a president? Let us know!

JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images