The List

The 10 Worst Countries for Journalists

Freedom House ranks the world's most repressive media climates.

Each year at this time, Freedom House issues a report on the state of global media freedom. The overall findings for 2012 were bleak: Just 14 percent of the world's population lives in societies that enjoy vibrant coverage of public affairs, a legal environment that undergirds a free press, and freedom from intrusion by the government or other political forces.

The countries profiled below are members of an ignoble club -- the 10 most serious violators of press freedom in the world. Most of these countries do have constitutions that pay tribute to the values of freedom of speech and information, but in reality, these protections are often superseded by laws that criminalize press commentary that, according to these regimes, insults the political leadership, breeds "hate," supports "terrorism," or threatens national security. The methods employed to enforce a regime of censorship vary from the downright thuggish to more nuanced tactics. The absence of outright violence does not necessarily signify that a country enjoys a freer media landscape than a country where journalists are regularly murdered. Decades of totalitarian control in North Korea and Cuba have rendered serious efforts at independent journalism nonexistent in the first case and rare in the second.

Many believe that the Internet and other forms of new media will be instruments of liberation for the oppressed. But most of the countries described still have relatively low Internet penetration rates, and in every case, policies have been put in place to limit new media's potential political impact. Whether these measures will prove effective as these countries move to further integrate in the global economy is open to serious question:

1. North Korea

From Kim Il Sung to Kim Jong Il to Kim Jong Un, North Korea has retained the grimmest media environment in the world. The party-state owns the press in its entirety and devotes considerable energy and resources to the task of preventing North Koreans from hearing alternative interpretations of events. According to the constitution, news coverage should conform to the "collective spirit," an Orwellian phrase that in practice means building up the image of the leader as loved by his own people and feared by everyone else and condemning regime critics as "hyenas," " jackals," and other stock insults from an archaic totalitarian vocabulary that other dictatorships abandoned decades ago. Although the Associated Press has been allowed to set up a bureau in Pyongyang, foreign journalists are placed under the control of special minders, who seize their mobile phones on arrival, guard against chance meetings with ordinary people, and carefully monitor their movements.

While North Korea has kept Internet penetration low, the state has come to recognize new media's potential as yet another instrument of propaganda both at home and for a foreign audience. North Korea even maintains its own official YouTube and Twitter handles. Internet connections, however, are restricted to a handful of approved high-level officials and academics who have received state approval. For average citizens, web access is available only to a nationwide intranet -- the Kwangmyong -- that does not link to foreign sites.

Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images

2. Turkmenistan

President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov's government maintains near-total control over the media. Indeed, the level of suppression is so complete that while libel is a criminal offense, it is seldom invoked because of the near-total absence of independent reporting. The regime would probably argue that there is little need for journalistic watchdogs, given that the president was reelected in 2012 with a 97.14 percent majority. State surveillance is so pervasive that kindergartens have been instructed to report on each child's family members going back three generations.

To be sure, a few courageous reporters and NGO activists do try to inform the public about life in Turkmenistan. But the state has ways to discourage its critics. The day after human rights defender Nataliya Shabunts criticized the government in a radio interview, a bloody sheep's head was placed at her door. On a more mundane level, independent-minded reporters are blacklisted and prevented from traveling either inside Turkmenistan or abroad.

On several occasions, the government has ordered the removal of satellite dishes in Ashgabat, which convey various international news stations to Turkmens. Few complied with the directives, but access to satellite television remains limited due to the cost. Meanwhile, Turkmenistan has announced its intention to launch its own communications satellite to control broadcasting even more thoroughly (currently, Russian and Turkish channels are broadcast in the country).

MUSTAFA OZER/AFP/Getty Images

3. Uzbekistan

President Islam Karimov has an effective, though not especially nuanced, method to silence critical voices: His authorities fine, imprison, or deport individual journalists, and shut down newspapers that depart from the official explanation of events. When dealing with critics, a lack of evidence is not necessarily an obstacle. Investigative journalist Victor Krymzalov was fined after being found guilty of defamation for an article in Centrasia.ru that was published without a byline. Another independent journalist, Elena Bondar, was convicted on the unusual charge of "collective libel" for an article about the closing of a university. One imprisoned journalist, Muhammad Bekjanov -- who was charged with attempting to overthrow the regime -- was due to be released in January when Kazan's district court sentenced him to an additional five years on charges of breaking unspecified prison rules.

Uzbekistan has been placed on the Committee to Protect Journalists' lists of top media censors and leading jailers of journalists.

PRAKASH SINGH/AFP/Getty Images

4. Eritrea

According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, 28 journalists were imprisoned in Eritrea at the end of 2012, which makes the country among the most hostile to reporters on a per capita basis. Nine have been in prison since 2001. Often no charges are made public, though in some cases it is believed that the crime is planning to join other independent reporters who have fled the country.

In an extraordinary twist, the minister of information, Ali Abdu, had reportedly fled Eritrea at the end of 2012 while on a trip in Europe. Ali's family, including his father and teenage daughter, have since been arrested by Eritrean authorities. Going into exile is no guarantee of escaping the reach of the Eritrean state. For example, a diaspora journalist running a website in neighboring Sudan, adoulis.com, was arrested in 2011 less than a week after an official visit to Sudan by the Eritrean president, Isaias Afwerki.

The government requires all Internet service providers to use government-controlled Internet infrastructure. Many websites managed by Eritreans abroad are blocked, as is YouTube.

PETER BUSOMOKE/AFP/Getty Images

5. Belarus

That Belarus is included in this list is not surprising, given President Alexander Lukashenko's assertion that, "There is nothing more unbearable for a person than liberty." He has devoted his nearly 19 years in power to relieving the burden of freedom from his citizens. One after another, he has shuttered independent newspapers and television stations, used state media as a propaganda weapon, and jailed, fined, and harassed journalists who stubbornly resisted Lukashenko's unique brand of retro-communism. The authorities regularly punish or close media that publish materials that do not "correspond to reality" or threaten "the interests of the state." The law also calls for penalties against outlets that report statements -- for example, by political parties or NGOs -- that "discredit the Republic of Belarus."

The government subjects both independent and foreign media as well as press-freedom activists to systematic political intimidation for reporting on human rights abuses and unauthorized demonstrations. Officials regularly harass the Belarusian Association of Journalists in retaliation for its work defending journalists, and state television broadcasts pseudo-documentaries designed to smear the organization and its leaders. Foreign journalists are not immune from harassment. Last June, Iryna Khalip, the Belarus correspondent for the Moscow newspaper Novaya Gazeta, found a decapitated chicken's head in her mailbox after she had written articles critical of the regime.

With Internet penetration now approaching 50 percent, authorities have devoted considerable resources to gaining control of cyberspace. In response, the state requires domestic and international websites to register with the Information Ministry, forcing many independent print publications to switch to domain names based in neighboring countries. The state-owned telecommunications company Beltelekom, which is the sole internet service provider, already controls all international data transfers and blocks some critical websites, while the security services reportedly monitor internet communications and spread keylogger Trojan viruses to steal passwords from website editors. The authorities have also responded to the growing influence of the internet by escalating prosecutions of journalists reporting for web sites.

AFP/Getty Images

6. Cuba

Well into the 21st century, Cuba retains a censorship regime that differs little from the policies that prevailed in the Soviet Union during the Brezhnev period. The constitution eschews the hypocritical nods to freedom of expression that are the hallmark of other repressive states. Instead, it straightforwardly prohibits private ownership of media outlets and allows free speech and journalism only if they "conform to the aims of a socialist society." Article 91 of the penal code imposes lengthy prison sentences or death for those who act against "the independence or the territorial integrity of the state," and Law 88 for the Protection of Cuba's National Independence and Economy imposes up to 20 years in prison for committing acts "aimed at subverting the internal order of the nation and destroying its political, economic, and social system."

Expectations for a more relaxed press environment waned in 2012, as the initial optimism following the 2010 and 2011 release of journalists imprisoned during the 2003 "Black Spring" -- when the government arrested and imprisonment 75 Cuban dissidents -- gave way to a media crackdown. Independent Cuban journalists continued to be subject to harassment and arbitrary detention for their reporting on topics deemed sensitive by the government and coverage of internationally-covered events, or any perceived critique of the state. Such harassment took the form of arbitrary short-term detentions, in deportations, house arrests, and blocking of individuals' cellular phone service.

By year's end two imprisoned Cuban journalists faced harsh prison sentences, prompting many to fear a return to earlier periods of repression. Press repression was especially harsh during the  visit of Pope Benedict XVI to the island, during which a number of independent journalists and bloggers were subject to short-term detention, and were blocked from attending the pope's open masses in the cities of Santiago de Cuba and Havana. Prominent Cuban dissident blogger Yoani Sánchez was detained en route to the city of Bayamo to cover a trial, along with her husband, journalist Reinaldo Escobar and dissident blogger Agustín Díaz.

As many as 23 percent of Cubans have access to the Internet, though fewer than 10 percent have access to the web. The vast majority of Internet users have access only to a closely monitored Cuban intranet, consisting of an encyclopedia, email addresses ending in ".cu" used by universities and government officials, and a few government-run websites. For the average Cuban, access to the World Wide Web comes through outdated dial-up technology, and is often limited to international email. In 2012, the Cuban government set rates for web access at $6.50 an hour, and $1.65 an hour for international email (the average monthly salary is $20). The regime threatens anyone connecting to the Internet illegally with five years in prison, while the sentence for writing "counterrevolutionary" articles for foreign websites is 20 years.

ADALBERTO ROQUE/AFP/Getty Images

7. Iran

The assault on freedom of expression continues at an accelerated pace in the Islamic Republic. A major trend of late has been book banning. Some 250 "subversive" titles were banned ahead of the 2012 Tehran International Book Fair, and Cheshmeh Publications, one of the largest publishing houses in Iran, had its operating license revoked in June 2012 for publishing an "offensive" book about Imam Hossein.

The government directly controls all television and radio broadcasting. Satellite dishes are popular, despite being illegal, and there have been increasing reports of dish confiscation and steep fines. The authorities frequently issue ad hoc orders banning media coverage of specific topics and events, including the economic impact of international sanctions, the fate of opposition leaders, and criticism of the country's nuclear policy. Cooperation with Persian-language satellite news channels based abroad is banned. The government has also placed pressure on the family members of journalists living abroad, including BBC Persian employees, who have been harassed, questioned, and detained by the security and intelligence apparatus. Last year the government ordered the closure of the House of Cinema, an independent professional association that supported some 5,000 Iranian filmmakers and artists.                    

Numerous periodicals were closed for morality or security offenses in 2012, including the independent newspaper Maghreb, which was found in violation of press laws following its publication of a cartoon of President Ahmadinejad. In a sign of desperation, Ali Akbar Javanfekr, an Ahmadinejad adviser and head of the state news agency, was jailed for six months for publishing content "contrary to Islamic standards." And a special media court found Reuters bureau chief Parisa Hafezi guilty of "disseminating lies" for a story on women practicing martial arts in Iran and suspended the agency's accreditation. Iran ranks second in the world for the number of jailed journalists, with 45 behind bars as of December 2012, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists.

Internet penetration has skyrocketed in recent years, but authorities have consequently established draconian laws and practices to restrict access to communication tools, persecute dissidents for their online activity, and strengthen the government's vast censorship apparatus. Key international social-media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube were blocked after the 2009 election, and the number of disabled political sites continues to expand. The 2010 Computer Crimes Law is freighted with vaguely defined offenses that effectively criminalize legitimate online expression; the law also legalizes government surveillance of the internet. In January 2012, the authorities unveiled new regulations that oblige cybercafé owners to record the personal information and browsing histories of customers. The first phase of a national intranet, aimed at disconnecting the population from the global Internet, was launched last September.

ATTA KENARE/AFP/Getty Images

8. Equatorial Guinea

By law, the government of President Teodoro Obiang Nguema has prepublication access to newspaper articles and commentaries, a power which, not surprisingly, encourages self-censorship. Although journalists have been allowed to voice mild criticism of state institutions, criticism of the president, his family, other high-ranking officials, and the security forces is not tolerated. Journalists were unable to inform the public about the multiple international criminal investigations into alleged money-laundering by the president's son. Local journalists and private publications are required to register with the government through an impossibly complex bureaucratic process. Few international correspondents are granted access to the country and those who are given visas are subject to censorship and prohibited from reporting on poverty and the oil sector. In late 2012, press freedom defender Manuel Nze Nsongo died under mysterious circumstances, a major blow for Equatorial Guinea's independent media.

For those interested in opposition views, the Internet has replaced broadcast media as the source of choice. Unfortunately, Internet penetration is estimated at only 6 percent.

AFP/Getty Images

9. Syria

Journalists are not immune to the Syrian slaughterhouse. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists there were 28 killed during 2012, with the Assad regime and the opposition dividing responsibility.

Conditions were abysmal for reporters even before the current conflict. The 2001 Press Law allows for broad state control over all print media and forbids reporting on topics that are deemed sensitive by the government, such as issues of national security or national unity; it also forbids the publication of inaccurate information, as interpreted by the state. Individuals found guilty of violating the Press Law face one to three years in prison and fines ranging from $10,000 to $20,000. The prime minister has the power to grant or deny licenses to journalists.

In 2011, Assad issued a new media law, which prohibits a "monopoly on the media," guarantees the "right to access information about public affairs," and bans "the arrest, questioning, or searching of journalists." However, it also bars the media from publishing content that affects "national unity and national security," inciting sectarian strife or "hate crimes." The law also forbids the publication of any information about the armed forces. Article 3 states that the law "upholds freedom of expression guaranteed in the Syrian constitution" and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, but Article 4 says the media must "respect this freedom of expression" by "practicing it with awareness and responsibility." Not surprisingly, the government continued to arrest journalists under the ambiguous charge of threatening "national security."

Syria's civil war has made a bad media landscape even worse. Syrian authorities continue to forcibly restrict coverage of the unrest and misreport the uprising on state-run television stations. Until rather recently, Assad tried to control world perceptions by banning all but a few foreign journalists, though that policy has begun to change. At the same time, the regime's loss of control in certain regions has meant less pervasive censorship. Media outlets that previously did not cover political developments have become sources of genuine news for Syrians in parts of the country. There is now more open criticism of the regime. Pro-opposition newspapers, such as Suryitna, Oxygen, Hurriyat, and Enab Baladi, have also popped up, though they tend to circulate either underground or online. Citizen journalists continue to be critical in providing foreign outlets with video recordings of protests and atrocities, but the authenticity of these recordings can be difficult to verify.

AFP/Getty Images

10. Bahrain

Restrictions on the press have steadily worsened since pro-democracy protests began in 2011. Media control is made simple by the fact that the government owns all broadcast media outlets and the private owners of the three main newspapers have close ties to the state. The government and its supporters have used the press to smear human rights and opposition activists. Self-censorship is encouraged by the vaguely worded 2002 Press Law, which allows the state to imprison journalists for criticizing the king or Islam, or for threatening "national security."

Many domestic journalists have been arrested and detained without warrants and confessions have been extracted through torture. The prominent blogger Ali Abdulemam, a regular contributor to the popular opposition web forum Bahrain Online, was sentenced, in absentia to 15 years in prison by a military court in 2011, and he remained missing in 2012.

The government continues to block a number of opposition websites, including those that broadcast protests. The authorities also obstructed foreign journalists' through the denial of visas and arrests and deportations of those who have tried to cover protest demonstrations. A Shi'a media exists only outside the country, but the state has spent huge amounts on cyber censorship and monitoring capabilities and has become increasingly effective at blocking access to foreign-based sites.

AFP/Getty Images

The List

The FP Power Map

The 500 most powerful people on the planet.

Is it possible to identify the 500 most powerful individuals on the planet -- one in 14 million? That's what we tried to do with the inaugural FP Power Map, our inventory of the people who control the commanding heights of the industries that run the world, from politics to high finance, media to energy, warfare to religion. Think of it as a list of all the most important other lists. Here's how they stack up -- and why (sorry, declinists!) Americans are still No. 1 in pretty much everything that matters. For now.

Sources and Methods: Where possible, we took a "list of lists" approach, consulting the authoritative rankings for a given industry and substituting judgment where quantitative assessments do not exist. Among our sources: Box Office Mojo Yearly Box Office, Citypopulation.de by Thomas Brinkoff, Forbes 100 Most Powerful Women, Forbes World's Most Powerful People, Global Finance World's 50 Biggest Banks, Fortune Global 500, Global Journal Top 100 NGOs, Institute of Media and Communications Policy International Media Corporations, Pensions & Investments/Towers Watson World 500, PFC Energy 50, SIPRI Military Expenditure Database and SIPRI Top 100 companies, Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute Fund Rankings, Times Higher Education World University Rankings by Thomson Reuters, Vanity Fair New Establishment List, Wall Street Journal MarketWatch World's Largest Mutual Funds.

Mahmoud Abbas President, Palestinian Authority West Bank Politics
Tony Abbott Liberal Party leader Australia Politics
Shinzo Abe Prime minister Japan PoliticsBully Pulpit
Jill Abramson New York Times executive editor USA Bully Pulpit
Sheldon Adelson Las Vegas Sands CEO and chair USA PoliticsMoney
Aga Khan IV Ismaili Muslim imam Britain Bully PulpitMoney
Daniel Akerson General Motors CEO and chair USA Money
Rinat Akhmetov System Capital Management owner Ukraine Money
Karl Albrecht Aldi Süd owner Germany Money
Vagit Alekperov Lukoil president Russia Money
Keith Alexander National Security Agency director USA Force
Paul Allen Microsoft co-founder and Vulcan Inc. chair USA BrainsMoney
Yukiya Amano International Atomic Energy Agency director-general Japan Good
Shlomo Amar Sephardic chief rabbi Israel Bully Pulpit
Mukesh Ambani Reliance Industries chair and managing director India Money
Yaakov Amidror National security advisor Israel Force
Celso Amorim Defense minister Brazil Force
Marc Andreessen Andreessen Horowitz co-founder USA BrainsMoney
A.K. Antony Defense minister India Force
Catherine Ashton European Union foreign minister Britain Politics
Taro Aso Finance minister Japan Money
Bashar al-Assad President Syria Evil
Ibrahim bin Abdulaziz al-Assaf Finance minister Saudi Arabia Money
Aung San Suu Kyi Opposition leader Burma PoliticsBully Pulpit
Jean-Marc Ayrault Prime minister France Politics
Alberto Baillères Grupo Bal chair Mexico Money
John Baird Foreign minister Canada Politics
Bernard Bajolet Directorate-General for External Security head* France Force
Steve Ballmer Microsoft CEO USA BrainsMoney
Ban Ki-moon United Nations secretary-general South Korea GoodBully Pulpit
Mario Barletta Radical Civic Union president Argentina Politics
José Manuel Barroso European Commission president Portugal Politics
Bartholomew I Ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople Turkey Bully Pulpit
Omar Hassan al-Bashir President Sudan Evil
Fatou Bensouda International Criminal Court prosecutor Gambia Good
Ben Bernanke Federal Reserve chair USA MoneyBully Pulpit
Pier Luigi Bersani Democratic Party secretary Italy Politics
Jeff Bewkes Time Warner Inc. CEO and chair USA Bully PulpitMoney
Jeff Bezos Amazon CEO USA BrainsMoney
Ted Bianco Wellcome Trust acting director Britain Good
Joseph Biden Vice president USA PoliticsBully Pulpit
Carl Bildt Foreign minister Sweden Politics
Robert Birgeneau U.C. Berkeley chancellor USA Brains
Tony Blair Former prime minister Britain PoliticsBully Pulpit
Lloyd Blankfein Goldman Sachs CEO and chair USA Money
Len Blavatnik Access Industries chair USA Money
Michael Bloomberg New York mayor USA PoliticsBully PulpitMoney
John Boehner Speaker of the House of Representatives USA Politics
Jean-Laurent Bonnafé BNP Paribas CEO and director France Money
Alexander Bortnikov FSB director Russia Force
Leszek Borysiewicz Cambridge University chief executive Britain Brains
John Brennan CIA director USA Force
Sergey Brin Google co-founder USA BrainsMoney
Andrew Brown Church Commissioners CEO and secretary Britain Good
Warren Buffett Berkshire Hathaway CEO USA Bully PulpitMoney
Ursula Burns Xerox CEO USA Money
David Cameron Prime minister Britain PoliticsBully Pulpit
Bob Carr Foreign minister Australia Politics
Vicente Carrillo Fuentes Juárez cartel leader Mexico Evil
John Chambers Cisco CEO and chair USA Money
Margaret Chan World Health Organization director-general China Good
Norman Chan Hong Kong Monetary Authority CEO Hong Kong Money
Stephen Chazen Occidental CEO and president USA Money
Dhanin Chearavanont Charoen Pokphand Group chair Thailand Money
Chen Yuan China Development Bank chair China Money
Cheng Yu-tung Investor Hong Kong Money
Palaniappan Chidambaram Finance minister India Money
Jean-Paul Chifflet Crédit Agricole CEO France Money
James Clapper Director of national intelligence USA Force
Helen Clark U.N. Development Program administrator New Zealand Good
Joseph Clayton Dish Network CEO and president USA Bully Pulpit
Bill Clinton Former president USA PoliticsBully Pulpit
Hillary Clinton Former secretary of state USA PoliticsBully Pulpit
Tim Cook Apple CEO USA BrainsMoney
Jean-François Copé Union for a Popular Movement president France Politics
Michael Corbat Citigroup CEO USA Money
Ertharin Cousin U.N. World Food Program executive director USA Good
James Cuno J. Paul Getty Trust CEO and president USA Good
Siyabonga Cwele State security minister South Africa Force
Ophelia Dahl Partners in Health executive director USA Good
Dai Xianglong National Council for Social Security Fund chair China Money
Dalai Lama Tibetan spiritual leader   Bully Pulpit
Aliko Dangote Dangote Group CEO and president Nigeria Money
Kim Darroch National security advisor Britain Force
Ahmet Davutoglu Foreign minister Turkey Politics
Henri de Castries AXA CEO and chair France Money
Michael Dell Dell CEO USA BrainsMoney
Leonardo Del Vecchio Luxottica chair Italy Money
Thomas de Maizière Defense minister Germany Force
Christophe de Margerie Total CEO and chair France Money
Martin Dempsey Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff USA Force
Hailemariam Desalegn African Union chair Ethiopia Politics
Cobus de Swardt Transparency International managing director South Africa Good
Philip de Toledo Capital Group Companies president USA Money
Michael Diekmann Allianz CEO and chair Germany Money
Jeroen Dijsselbloem Dutch finance minister and Eurogroup president Netherlands Money
Sheila Dikshit New Delhi chief minister India Politics
Jamie Dimon JPMorgan Chase CEO, chair, and president USA Money
Daniel Doctoroff Bloomberg L.P. CEO and president USA Bully Pulpit
Tom Donilon National security advisor USA Force
Thomas Donohue Chamber of Commerce CEO and president USA PoliticsBully PulpitMoney
Jack Dorsey Twitter founder and Square Inc. CEO USA Bully PulpitBrains
Mario Draghi European Central Bank president Italy Money
Abu Dua al Qaeda in Iraq leader Iraq Evil
Jean-François Dubos Vivendi chair France Bully Pulpit
Bob Dudley BP CEO USA Money
Mike Duke Walmart CEO and president USA Money
Mark Dybul Global Fund executive director USA Good
Nabil Elaraby Arab League secretary-general Egypt Politics
Mohamed A. El-Erian Pimco CEO and co-CIO USA Money
John Elkann Exor chair Italy Money
Larry Ellison Oracle CEO and chair USA BrainsMoney
Erik Engstrom Reed Elsevier CEO Sweden Bully Pulpit
Recep Tayyip Erdogan Prime minister Turkey PoliticsBully Pulpit
Sergio Ermotti UBS CEO Switzerland Money
Laurent Fabius Foreign minister France Politics
Richard Fadden Canadian Security Intelligence Service director Canada Force
Teuku Faizasyah International affairs advisor Indonesia Force
Mohsen Fakhrizadeh-Mahabadi Nuclear scientist Iran Evil
John Fallon Pearson CEO Britain Bully Pulpit
Fan Changlong Central Military Commission vice chairman China Force
Fang Fenghui People's Liberation Army chief of general staff China Force
Drew Gilpin Faust Harvard University president USA Brains
Jon Feltheimer Lionsgate CEO and co-chair USA Bully Pulpit
Hakan Fidan National Intelligence Organization undersecretary Turkey Force
Laurence Fink BlackRock CEO and chair USA Money
Chris Finlayson BG CEO Britain Money
Jürgen Fitschen Deutsche Bank co-chair Germany Money
James Flaherty Finance minister Canada Money
Maria das Graças Silva Foster Petrobras CEO Brazil Money
Mikhail Fradkov Foreign Intelligence Service head Russia Force
Pope Francis Head of Catholic Church Vatican City Bully Pulpit
Vagner Freitas Unified Workers' Central president Brazil Politics
Mikhail Fridman Alfa Group Consortium chair Russia Money
Fu Chengyu Sinopec chair China Money
Osamu Fujimura Chief cabinet secretary Japan Politics
Robert Gallucci MacArthur Foundation president USA Good
Sonia Gandhi Indian National Congress party president India Politics
Bill Gates Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation co-chair and Microsoft co-founder USA MoneyGood
Melinda Gates Gates Foundation co-chair USA MoneyGood
Valery Gerasimov Armed forces chief of general staff Russia Force
Rostam Ghasemi Iranian oil minister Iran Money
Carlos Ghosn Nissan and Renault CEO and chair France Money
Julia Gillard Prime minister Australia Politics
Ivan Glasenberg Glencore CEO South Africa Money
Robert Glasser Care International secretary-general USA Good
Pravin Gordhan Finance minister South Africa Money
Terry Gou Foxconn CEO Taiwan Money
Mario Greco Assicurazioni Generali CEO Italy Money
Brad Grey Paramount Pictures CEO and chair USA Bully Pulpit
William Gross Pimco co-CIO and managing director USA Money
Sérgio Guerra Brazilian Social Democracy Party president Brazil Politics
Abdullah Gul President Turkey Politics
Fethullah Gulen Muslim religious leader Turkey Bully Pulpit
Stuart Gulliver HSBC group CEO Britain Money
Guo Jinlong Beijing Communist Party secretary China Politics
Guo Shengkun Minister of public security China Force
Ángel Gurrí­a OECD secretary-general Mexico Politics
António Guterres U.N. high commissioner for refugees Portugal Good
Javier Gutiérrez Ecopetrol CEO Colombia Money
Joaquín Guzmán Loera Sinaloa drug cartel leader Mexico Evil
Fernando Haddad São Paulo mayor Brazil Politics
Chuck Hagel Defense secretary USA Force
William Hague Foreign minister Britain Politics
Tony Hall BBC director-general Britain Bully Pulpit
Andrew Hamilton Oxford University chief executive Britain Brains
Ingrid Hamm Robert Bosch Stiftung executive director Germany Good
John Hammergren McKesson CEO, chair, and president USA Money
Philip Hammond Secretary of state for defense Britain Force
Han Zheng Shanghai Communist Party secretary China Politics
Jalaluddin Haqqani Haqqani network leader Afghanistan Evil
Stephen Harper Prime minister Canada PoliticsBully Pulpit
Toru Hashimoto Osaka mayor Japan Politics
Gerald Hassell Bank of New York Mellon CEO and chair USA Money
Jimmy Hayes Cox Enterprises CEO and president USA Bully Pulpit
John Hennessy Stanford University president USA Brains
Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert Defense minister Netherlands Force
Stephen Hester Royal Bank of Scotland CEO Britain Money
Christoph Heusgen National security advisor Germany Force
Marillyn Hewson Lockheed Martin CEO and president USA MoneyForce
Hisashi Hieda Fuji Media Holdings CEO and chair Japan Bully Pulpit
Nobuyuki Hirano Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group CEO and president Japan Money
Ho Ching Temasek CEO and executive director Singapore Money
Reid Hoffman LinkedIn co-founder and executive chair USA Brains
François Hollande President France PoliticsBully Pulpit
Jan Hommen ING CEO Netherlands Money
Mahabub Hossain BRAC executive director Bangladesh Good
Hyun Oh-seok Finance minister South Korea Money
Carl Icahn Icahn Enterprises chair USA Money
Robert Iger Walt Disney Co. CEO and chair USA Bully PulpitMoney
Sergei Ignatiev Central Bank of Russia chair Russia Money
Jeffrey Immelt General Electric CEO and chair USA Money
Naoki Inose Tokyo governor Japan Politics
Zaheer ul-Islam Inter-Services Intelligence director-general Pakistan Force
Jonathan Ive Apple senior VP for industrial design Britain Brains
Paul Jacobs Qualcomm CEO and chair USA Brains
Mohammad Ali Jafari Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps commander Iran ForceEvil
Anshu Jain Deutsche Bank co-chair Britain Money
Paul Jean-Ortiz Diplomatic advisor France Force
Antony Jenkins Barclays Group CEO Britain Money
Jiang Jianqing Industrial and Commercial Bank of China executive director and chair China Money
Jiang Jiemin State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission chair* China Money
Jiang Zemin Former president China Politics
Edward Johnson Fidelity Investments CEO and chair USA Money
Goodluck Jonathan President Nigeria Politics
Alok Joshi Research and Analysis Wing chief India Force
Banri Kaieda Democratic Party of Japan president Japan Politics
Unni Karunakara Médecins Sans Frontières president India Good
Hamid Karzai President Afghanistan Politics
Ashfaq Parvez Kayani Chief of army staff Pakistan Force
Muhtar Kent Coca-Cola CEO and chair USA Money
Neal Keny-Guyer Mercy Corps CEO USA Good
John Kerry Secretary of state USA PoliticsBully Pulpit
Ali Khamenei Supreme leader Iran ForceEvil
Salman Khurshid Foreign minister India Politics
Paal Kibsgaard Schlumberger CEO Norway Money
Kemal Kilicdaroglu Republican People's Party chair Turkey Politics
Kim Jang-soo National security advisor South Korea Force
Jim Yong Kim World Bank president USA MoneyGood
Kim Jong Un Supreme leader North Korea ForceEvil
Kim Kwan-jin Defense minister South Korea Force
Ian King BAE Systems CEO Britain MoneyForce
Mervyn King Bank of England governor Britain Money
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner President Argentina PoliticsBully Pulpit
Fumio Kishida Foreign minister Japan Politics
Henry Kissinger Former secretary of state USA BrainsBully Pulpit
Susanne Klatten Investor Germany Money
Bill Klesse Valero CEO and chair USA Money
Philip Knight Nike chair USA Money
Charles Koch Koch Industries CEO and chair USA PoliticsMoney
David Koch Koch Industries executive VP USA PoliticsMoney
Nobuaki Koga Japanese Trade Union Confederation, president Japan Politics
Larry Kramer Hewlett Foundation president USA Good
William Kumuyi Deeper Christian Life Ministry general superintendent Nigeria Bully Pulpit
Haruhiko Kuroda Bank of Japan governor Japan Money
Raymond Kwok Sun Hung Kai Properties co-chair Hong Kong Money
Thomas Kwok Sun Hung Kai Properties co-chair Hong Kong Money
Oh-Hyun Kwon Samsung CEO South Korea BrainsMoney
Christine Lagarde IMF managing director France MoneyGood
Arnaud Lagardère Lagardère CEO and chair France Bully Pulpit
Pascal Lamy World Trade Organization director-general France Good
Ryan Lance ConocoPhillips CEO and chair USA Money
Germán Larrea Mota-Velasco Grupo México president Mexico Money
Carol Larson Packard Foundation president USA Good
Risa Lavizzo-Mourey Robert Wood Johnson Foundation CEO and president USA Good
Sergei Lavrov Foreign minister Russia Politics
Jean-Yves Le Drian Defense minister France Force
Lee Shau-kee Henderson Land Development chair Hong Kong Money
Thierry Lepaon General Confederation of Labor secretary-general France Politics
Richard Levin Yale University president USA Brains
Jacob Lew Treasury secretary USA Money
Li Hongzhi Falun Gong founder China Bully Pulpit
Li Jianguo All-China Federation of Trade Unions chair China Politics
Li Ka-shing Hutchison Whampoa chair Hong Kong Money
Li Keqiang Premier China Politics
Li Lihui Bank of China president China Money
Robin Li Baidu CEO China Bully PulpitBrainsMoney
Alfredo Lim Manila mayor Philippines Politics
Lim Siong Guan Government of Singapore Investment Corp. president Singapore Money
Vladimir Lisin NLMK chair Russia Money
Liu Zhenya State Grid Corp. president China Money
Andrés Manuel López Obrador Opposition leader Mexico Politics
Hernán Lorenzino Economic minister Argentina Money
Peter Löscher Siemens CEO and president Austria Money
Lou Jiwei Finance minister China Money
Emilio Lozoya Austin Pemex CEO Mexico Money
Helge Lund Statoil CEO and president Norway Money
Michael Lynton Sony Entertainment CEO and chair USA Bully Pulpit
Peter MacKay Defense minister Canada Force
Andrew Mackenzie BHP Billiton CEO South Africa Money
Gregory Maffei Liberty Media CEO and president USA Bully Pulpit
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Defense minister UAE PoliticsForce
Miguel Ángel Mancera Mexico City mayor Mexico Politics
Guido Mantega Finance minister Brazil Money
Lutz Marmor ARD chair Germany Bully Pulpit
John Mars Mars Inc. chair USA Money
Agus Martowardojo Finance minister Indonesia Money
Masayuki Matsumoto NHK president Japan Bully Pulpit
Isao Matsushita JX Holdings CEO and president Japan Money
Shigeo Matsutomi Intelligence chief Japan Force
Peter Maurer International Committee of the Red Cross president Switzerland Good
Marissa Mayer Yahoo! CEO USA Bully Pulpit
Timothy Mayopoulos Fannie Mae CEO USA Money
Lowell McAdam Verizon CEO and chair USA Money
Margot McCarthy National security advisor Australia Force
Mitch McConnell Senate minority leader USA Politics
William McNabb Vanguard CEO and chair USA Money
James McNerney Boeing CEO and chair USA MoneyForce
José Antonio Meade Foreign minister Mexico Politics
Mourad Medelci Foreign minister Algeria Politics
Dmitry Medvedev Prime minister Russia Politics
Hakimullah Mehsud Pakistani Taliban leader Pakistan Evil
Andrey Melnichenko Siberian Coal Energy Co. chair Russia Money
Shivshankar Menon National security advisor India Force
Angela Merkel Chancellor Germany PoliticsBully PulpitMoney
Khaled Meshaal Hamas leader West Bank ForceEvil
Gérard Mestrallet GDF Suez CEO and chair France Money
Yona Metzger Ashkenazi chief rabbi Israel Bully Pulpit
Leonid Mikhelson Novatek executive director Russia Money
Carolyn Miles Save the Children CEO and president USA Good
Ed Miliband Labour Party leader Britain Politics
Alexey Miller Gazprom CEO and chair Russia Money
Yuri Milner Digital Sky Technologies founder Russia BrainsMoney
Le Luong Minh Association of Southeast Asian Nations secretary-general Vietnam Politics
Lakshmi Mittal ArcelorMittal CEO and chair India Money
Semion Mogilevich Mafia boss Russia Evil
Nadir Mohamed Rogers Communications CEO and president Canada Bully Pulpit
Moon Hee-sang Democratic United Party leader South Korea Politics
Pedro Morenés Defense minister Spain Force
Mohamed Morsy President Egypt Politics
Pierre Moscovici Finance minister France Money
Heydar Moslehi Intelligence minister Iran Force
Brian Moynihan Bank of America CEO USA Money
Fahad al-Mubarak Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency governor Saudi Arabia Money
Alan Mulally Ford CEO and president USA Money
Tom Mulcair New Democratic Party leader Canada Politics
Rupert Murdoch News Corp. CEO and chair USA MoneyBully Pulpit
Elon Musk PayPal, SpaceX, and Tesla Motors founder USA MoneyBrains
Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan Foreign minister UAE Politics
Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan Abu Dhabi crown prince UAE PoliticsForceMoney
Ali al-Naimi Minister of petroleum Saudi Arabia Money
Hiroaki Nakanishi Hitachi president Japan BrainsMoney
Nam Jae-joon National Intelligence Service chief South Korea Force
Janet Napolitano Homeland security secretary USA Force
Óscar Naranjo National security advisor Mexico Force
Hassan Nasrallah Hezbollah secretary-general Lebanon PoliticsForceEvil
Marty Natalegawa Foreign minister Indonesia Politics
Mohammed bin Nayef Interior minister Saudi Arabia Force
Benjamin Netanyahu Prime minister Israel PoliticsBully Pulpit
Maite Nkoana-Mashabane Foreign minister South Africa Politics
Indra Nooyi PepsiCo CEO and chair USA Money
Phebe Novakovic General Dynamics CEO and chair USA MoneyForce
Christian Noyer Bank of France governor France Money
Barack Obama President USA PoliticsBully PulpitForceBrainsMoney
Michelle Obama First lady USA Bully Pulpit
Frances O'Grady Trades Union Congress general secretary Britain Politics
Mullah Mohammed Omar Taliban leader Afghanistan ForceEvil
Keith O'Nions Imperial College London rector Britain Brains
Itsunori Onodera Defense minister Japan Force
Amancio Ortega Inditex founder Spain Money
George Osborne Chancellor of the Exchequer Britain Money
Paul Otellini Intel CEO and president USA BrainsMoney
Michael Otto Otto Group chair Germany Money
Ricardo Paes de Barros Secretary of strategic affairs Brazil Force
Larry Page Google CEO USA BrainsMoney
Tamir Pardo Mossad director Israel Force
Park Geun-hye President South Korea Politics
Park Won-soon Seoul mayor South Korea Politics
Antonio Patriota Foreign minister Brazil Politics
Nikolai Patrushev National Security Council secretary Russia Force
Enrique Peña Nieto President Mexico PoliticsBully Pulpit
Yves Perrier Amundi CEO France Money
Stefan Persson H&M chair Sweden Money
Navi Pillay U.N. high commissioner for human rights South Africa Good
François-Henri Pinault Kering CEO and chair France Money
Juan Carlos Pinzón Defense minister Colombia Force
Georges Plassat Carrefour CEO France Money
Vladimir Potanin Interros owner Russia Money
Scott Powers State Street Global Advisors CEO and president USA Money
Sunil Prabhu Mumbai mayor India Politics
Vladimir Putin President Russia PoliticsBully PulpitForceMoney
Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sunni cleric Egypt Bully Pulpit
Thomas Rabe Bertelsmann CEO and chair Germany Bully Pulpit
Bertrand Ract-Madoux Army chief of staff France Force
Baba Ramdev Hindu spiritual leader India Bully Pulpit
Rafael Ramírez PDVSA president Venezuela Money
Anders Fogh Rasmussen NATO secretary-general Denmark Force
Sumner Redstone Viacom and CBS chair USA Bully Pulpit
Olli Rehn European Commission finance minister Finland Money
Harry Reid Senate majority leader USA Politics
L. Rafael Reif MIT president USA Brains
Stephen Rigby National security advisor Canada Force
Rebecca Rimel Pew Charitable Trusts CEO and president USA Good
Georgina Rinehart Hancock Prospecting chair and director Australia Money
Brian Roberts Comcast CEO and chair and NBCUniversal chair USA Bully Pulpit
John Roberts Supreme Court chief justice USA Politics
Virginia Rometty IBM CEO, chair, and president USA BrainsMoney
Kenneth Roth Human Rights Watch executive director USA Good
Dilma Rousseff President Brazil PoliticsBully Pulpit
David Rubenstein Carlyle Group co-CEO USA Money
George Rupp International Rescue Committee CEO and president USA Good
Bader al-Saad Kuwait Investment Authority managing director Kuwait Money
Alfredo Sáenz Banco Santander CEO Spain Money
Joseph Safra Grupo Safra chair Brazil Money
Atsuo Saka Japan Post Holdings CEO Japan Money
Sheryl Sandberg Facebook COO USA Brains
Norio Sasaki Toshiba president Japan BrainsMoney
Yasuhiro Sato Mizuho Financial Group CEO and president Japan Money
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud King Saudi Arabia PoliticsMoney
Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Crown prince Saudi Arabia PoliticsMoney
Saud bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Foreign minister Saudi Arabia Politics
John Sawers Secret Intelligence Service chief Britain Force
Paolo Scaroni Eni CEO Italy Money
Wolfgang Schäuble Finance minister Germany Money
Gerhard Schindler Federal Intelligence Service president Germany Force
Dieter Schwarz Schwarz Group owner Germany Money
Igor Sechin Rosneft president and chair Russia Money
Pierre Servant Natixis CEO France Money
Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Hindu spiritual leader India Bully Pulpit
Mohamed Raafat Shehata General Intelligence Service chief Egypt Force
Abdul-Aziz al-Sheikh Grand mufti Saudi Arabia Bully Pulpit
Salil Shetty Amnesty International secretary-general India Good
Sergei Shoigu Defense minister Russia Force
Faisal Al Shoubaki General Intelligence Department director Jordan Force
Radoslaw Sikorski Foreign minister Poland Politics
Anton Siluanov Finance minister Russia Money
Mehmet Simsek Finance minister Turkey Money
Manmohan Singh Prime minister India Politics
Carlos Slim Helú Grupo Carso founder Mexico Money
Yngve Slyngstad Norges Bank Investment Management CEO Norway Money
James Smith Thomson Reuters CEO and president USA Bully Pulpit
Stephen Smith Defense minister Australia Force
Sergei Sobyanin Moscow mayor Russia Politics
Michael Sommer Confederation of German Trade Unions president Germany Politics
Masayoshi Son SoftBank Mobile CEO Japan Brains
George Soros Soros Fund Management chair USA Money
Sterling Speirn Kellogg Foundation CEO and president USA Good
Richard Stearns World Vision president USA Good
Peer Steinbrück Opposition leader Germany Politics
Randall Stephenson AT&T CEO and chair USA Money
John Strangfeld Prudential Financial CEO and chair USA Money
Megawati Sukarnoputri Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle chair Indonesia Politics
Bandar bin Sultan General Intelligence Presidency chief Saudi Arabia Force
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. New York Times Co. chair USA Bully Pulpit
William Swanson Raytheon CEO and chair USA MoneyForce
Sushma Swaraj Bharatiya Janata Party opposition leader India Politics
Alwaleed bin Talal Kingdom Holding Co. chair Saudi Arabia Money
Ahmed al-Tayeb Grand sheikh of al-Azhar Egypt Bully Pulpit
Johannes Teyssen E.ON CEO and chair Germany Money
Hamad bin Jassim bin Jabr Al Thani Foreign minister Qatar Bully Pulpit
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani Emir Qatar PoliticsMoneyBully Pulpit
Thein Sein President Burma Politics
Peter Thiel PayPal co-founder USA BrainsMoney
David Thomson Thomson Reuters chair Canada Bully PulpitMoney
Shirley Tilghman Princeton University president USA Brains
Rex Tillerson Exxon Mobil CEO and chair USA Money
Héctor Timerman Foreign minister Argentina Politics
Robert Tjian Howard Hughes Medical Institute president USA Good
Alexandre Tombini Central Bank of Brazil governor Brazil Money
Akio Toyoda Toyota CEO Japan Money
Miguel Ángel Treviño Morales Zetas drug cartel leader Mexico Evil
Richard Trumka AFL-CIO president USA Politics
Kazuhiro Tsuga Panasonic president Japan BrainsMoney
Kevin Tsujihara Warner Bros. Entertainment CEO USA Bully Pulpit
Yoshinobu Tsutsui Nippon Life Insurance president Japan Money
Donald Tusk Prime minister Poland Politics
Luis Ubiñas Ford Foundation president USA Good
Hiroo Unoura Nippon Telegraph and Telephone CEO Japan Money
Alisher Usmanov Investor Russia Money
Herman Van Rompuy European Council president Belgium Politics
Viktor Vekselberg Renova Group chair Russia Money
Luis Videgaray Finance minister Mexico Money
Antonio Villaraigosa Los Angeles mayor USA Politics
Ignazio Visco Bank of Italy governor Italy Money
Peter Voser Royal Dutch Shell CEO Switzerland Money
Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb emir Algeria Evil
Jimmy Wales Wikipedia founder USA Bully Pulpit
Peter Wall Chief of general staff Britain Force
S. Robson Walton Walmart chair USA Money
Wan Qingliang Guangzhou Communist Party secretary China Politics
Wang Yi Foreign minister China Politics
Wang Yilin CNOOC chair China Money
Nick Warner Australian Secret Intelligence Service director-general Australia Force
Rick Warren Evangelical pastor USA Bully Pulpit
John Watson Chevron CEO and chair USA Money
Jens Weidmann German Federal Bank president Germany Money
Bob Weinstein Weinstein Company co-chair USA Bully Pulpit
Harvey Weinstein Weinstein Company co-chair USA Bully Pulpit
Justin Welby Archbishop of Canterbury Britain Bully Pulpit
Guido Westerwelle Foreign minister Germany Politics
Guy Weston Garfield Weston Foundation chair Britain Good
Meg Whitman Hewlett-Packard CEO and president USA Money
Joko Widodo Jakarta governor Indonesia Politics
Steve Williams Suncor CEO and president Canada Money
Oprah Winfrey Harpo Productions and Oprah Winfrey Network CEO and chair USA Bully PulpitMoney
Martin Winterkorn Volkswagen CEO Germany Money
Penny Wong Finance minister Australia Money
Carolyn Woo Catholic Relief Services CEO and president USA Good
George Wood Assemblies of God general superintendent USA Bully Pulpit
Nasir al-Wuhayshi al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula emir Yemen Evil
Xi Jinping President China PoliticsBully PulpitMoneyForce
Xu Qiliang Central Military Commission vice chairman China Force
Moshe Yaalon Defense minister Israel Force
Yang Jiechi State councilor China Politics
Yi Gang Foreign exchange reserves administrator China Money
Ismet Yilmaz Defense minister Turkey Force
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono President Indonesia Politics
Yun Byung-se Foreign minister South Korea Politics
Syed Hashim Raza Zaidi Karachi administrator Pakistan Politics
Lamberto Zannier Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe secretary-general Italy Politics
Ayman al-Zawahiri al Qaeda leader Egypt Evil
Dieter Zetsche Daimler CEO Germany Money
Zhang Jianguo China Construction Bank president and executive director China Money
Zhang Yuzhuo Shenhua Group CEO and president China Money
Zhou Jiping China National Petroleum Corp. and PetroChina chair*
China Money
Zhou Xiaochuan People's Bank of China governor China Money
Helen Zille Democratic Alliance leader South Africa Politics
Robert Zimmer University of Chicago president USA Brains
Mark Zuckerberg Facebook CEO and founder USA BrainsMoney
Jacob Zuma President South Africa Politics