Beginning in the 1860s, governments around the world began taking a more systematic approach to the hajj. Fears of epidemics -- especially after a cholera outbreak in 1865 killed around 15,000 pilgrims -- and the desire to keep track of statistics, led the Ottomans, British, French, Dutch, and Russians to attempt to better regulate hajj travel.
This 1886 ticket (above) is an example of the travel arrangements the colonial Indian government asked John Mason Cook (the son of Thomas Cook, founder of a British travel agency that became famous for tours in the Middle East) to organize for thousands of pilgrims traveling from what is today Mumbai to Jeddah. Cook operated the pilgrim ticket system until 1893. Some governments also issued pilgrim passports, a documentation that allowed governments to organize quarantine regulations and keep track of their citizens.
Thomas Cook Archives