Tea Leaf Nation

Chinese State Media Warns Against 14 'Evil Cults'

China's state security apparatus may have set its sights on a new target -- fringe religious groups.

On the evening of May 28, five alleged cult members bludgeoned a woman to death at a McDonald's in China's eastern province of Shandong. The adherents of the cult, called the Church of Almighty God, had attempted to recruit the woman to join their sect, then viciously attacked her after she refused to give them her phone number. Caught on video, the attack has sparked online outrage across China, directed both at onlookers and McDonald's staff who made no attempt to save the woman's life, as well as at the continued existence of the banned, openly anti-Communist Party cult.

Chinese state media has responded to the violent murder and subsequent outcry with a steady drumbeat of articles calling for a crackdown on religious sects. On June 3, state news agency Xinhua ran a front-page piece providing the names, descriptions, and "social harms" of 14 officially identified "evil religions," or cults. In addition to the Shouter's Cult, affiliated with the Church of Almighty God, other cults include the Apprentice Society, founded in the central province of Shaanxi in 1989 and which the article claims now boasts around 300,000 followers. The Apprentice Society encourages adherents to spend days in prayer instead of working, and discourages them from seeking medical care when ill.

Also making the list is the Unification Church, well known in the United States and founded by the late South Korean businessman and media mogul Sun Myung Moon -- the article characterizes "collective marriage" as one of the religious sect's "social harms." A similar June 3 article run by party mouthpiece People's Daily included a rare mention of Falun Gong, an offshoot of Buddhism that became the target of a crackdown in 1999 after members organized a large-scale political protest in Beijing; its name and related terms are subject to stringent censorship in China.

Chinese authorities have long been wary of religious sects. The 19th-century Taiping Rebellion, a violent uprising led by a man claiming to be the younger brother of Jesus, lasted for 14 years and resulted in the deaths of over 20 million people. During the Cultural Revolution, a period of political chaos and violent social upheaval in the 1960s and 1970s, authorities and grassroots militants alike heavily persecuted religion in any form. In 2012, Chinese authorities rounded up 500 members of the Church of Almighty God for preaching the idea of an imminent global apocalypse.

To be sure, China is far from the only country that is home to fringe religious groups, as state media has been swift to point out: Eight of the 14 cults listed in the Xinhua article were founded outside of mainland China. According to the state-run Global Times, Zhao Weishan fled to the United States in the 1990s after Chinese authorities banned the sect, while a People's Daily article on June 5 called the United States a "stronghold for the breeding of cults." Apart from using this to score political points against the United States, the articles have a simple message: "Don't let cults lead you astray" -- or else.

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Tea Leaf Nation

Hong Kong's Angry, Anti-Mainland Counter-Vigil

Some here think the usual Tiananmen commemoration is too soft on the Communist Party.

HONG KONG — On the 25th anniversary of the June 4, 1989, crackdown on pro-democracy protesters in Tiananmen Square in central Beijing, two vastly different commemoration events are taking place on the mainland's edges. The annual candlelight vigil in Hong Kong's Victoria Park, a tradition dating from 1990, attracted an estimated 180,000 attendees, according to organizers. Turnout appeared to top that of 2013, when the official estimate from the police was 54,000, while organizers claimed 150,000. But another, angrier, shadow commemoration emerged this year, one driven by Hong Kongers angry with what they view as elements of pro-mainland sentiment in the larger vigil.

The organizers of the new gathering -- two groups called Civic Passion and the Proletariat Political Institute -- claim to espouse a complete rejection of the Chinese Communist Party and its rule, rather than holding out hope for reconciliation, reform, or redress of past wrongs. The large banner hoisted on the stage read in Chinese: "Don't Need [Chinese Government] to Redress June 4" and "Want the Demise of the Communist Regime." 

The new gathering only turned out a small fraction of the attendance at its storied counterpart in Victoria Park. The organizers claimed more than 7,000 were present, but police estimated approximately 3,060. The crowd filled the small open space between the Hong Kong Cultural Center and Victoria Harbor, underneath the historical Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Tower. The city's iconic skyline, along the edge of the opposite bank, served as a dramatic backdrop to banners with the words "Localism, Democracy, and Anti-Communism." The organizers led a chant as they burned a Chinese Communist Party flag on stage: "Down with the Communist Party!"

The anger emanating from the podium was palpable. One speaker after another called for popular elections for Hong Kong's chief executive without any restrictions on candidate nomination, a key sticking point for the planned 2017 election. Unless their demands are met, claimed the organizers, "We will occupy the LegCo" -- shorthand for Hong Kong's legislative body. The threatened move echoes March and April's three-week occupation of the Legislative Yuan in Taiwan by college students protesting a trade pact with mainland China.

Anxiety over possible erosion of cherished cultural symbols was also obvious. One video clip shown on the large screen implored attendees to "protect traditional Chinese script and [spoken] Cantonese," which are in use in Hong Kong, instead of simplified Chinese script and spoken mandarin Chinese, both the standard on the mainland.

Most members of the crowd amassed harborside were in their 20s and 30s. A young boy who carried a flag from colonial British Hong Kong -- a provocative symbol of nostalgia for the city's colonial past -- looked no older than 15.  

It's unclear how much these groups can effect change. Just a quick five-minute walk away on the Avenue of the Stars, a long stretch of waterfront promenade popular with tourists, all forms of mainland dialects could be heard as tourists posed for selfies, munched on ice cream, and took leisurely strolls with children in tow through the relatively cool evening air. At the end of the promenade hung a banner advertising an upcoming dragon boat race, in "celebration of the 17th anniversary of Hong Kong's return to China." It was sponsored by China Construction Bank, one of China's largest state-owned banks.

The separate commemoration of the June 4 anniversary is only a symptom of growing discord among Hong Kong's more radical nativist camps, which enjoy considerable support among young people here, and more established pro-democracy groups that still see changes in mainland China as the key to push forth Hong Kong's own democratic reforms. As Hong Kong's economic and political future become increasingly intertwined with China's, the identity crisis among anxious locals will likely become even more apparent.

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